Impressionism art style
Impressionist painting ,also called Impressionism, western painting history is epoch-making art genre, 19th century 60 - the rise of painting in France in the 90 s, at the time of Claude monet painting "impression, sunrise" is a journalist named ridicule. The picture depicts le o, harbour early in the morning, when the sun rises just. Due to the painter to be in a very short moment, the beauty of the morning before the light has no change, is about to finish work, so the picture can't describe very carefully. When the academic artists see this picture, very rough, too casual, just use sarcasm language mock "barbizon" painter, mean to say: it is a group of painters, know nothing about painting "impression, sunrise" completely is drawn at random by heart, others also echoed said, all these artists are "impressionism", unexpectedly, these remarks, instead of enabling the this batch of painter, "impressionism" was born, "barbizon" instead of being slowly forgotten.
The development of
A group of young artists in Paris in 1874, the Capitol avenue held an apartment in the first impressionist painting exhibition, there are 31 impressionist exhibition. To challenge the official salon. Including monet, renoir, pissarro, west weasley, degas, Cezanne and Murray, painters not only has a different character and talent, and to some extent, they also have different ideas and tendency, however, they are born at the same time, have the same experience, and opposition to the same struggle. They embraced some magazines satire writer a letter to them with the title of ridicule taste - "impressionism".
In the 19th century, Paris is the center of European painting. The style of this time is neoclassicism as the leading academic and official exhibitions every year, they called "salon", most people have come from the Royal Academy of fine arts, they have deep drawing, and proficient in human anatomy, rigorous style, exquisite. And at the same time, there are a large number of other young artist full of ideal, they came from all classes, most of which are free, a lot of people to the academic teaching mode and painting styles have different views, think classical machine-made, lack of personal style, they are advocating realism, and advocate for outdoor sketch. Because we have a common ideal and views, they gradually gathered in Paris on the outskirts of a small village called barbizon, depicting charming scenery, there they are known as the barbizon school. "Barbizon" village Fontainebleau town is now one of the satellite city of Paris. "Barbizon school" is the predecessor "impressionism".
These painters only rare accepted by official, most of the painter's work was rejected "salon" outside, so the painters will jointly host the "official salon" defeated exhibition, gradually to their style of social acceptance.
Anyhow, impressionism is neither a rough, nor avant-garde, more is not abstract, he is the colours of the scientific art used in painting, China's college entrance examination arts color test, also with the colour law as standard.
Impressionism Impressionnism (1874-1886) : no reliable basis of knowledge, with the instant impression do painting. painters
Is caught a has the characteristics of side to do painting, flying so they must brush paint a color directly on the canvas, they can only consider the overall effect of the painting, less side details. Impressionism in extensive brushwork painting, works lack of decoration, is a painting of brushwork is sloppy. Impressionism take in outdoor sunlight directly depicting scenery, the pursuit of thinking to consider the change of light and color, and will be an instant sense of light based on processing attached on the canvas in my own mind, this gauge of light and color is also reached the ultimate in sense of color and light beauty.
Claim according to the solar spectrum of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet seven kinds of color to reflect the nature of the instant impression, impressionist works selected topic face more extensive, whether in the cities or in rural areas, the painter tried to capture the rapidly changing nature.
Impressionist painters against the classical school of legitimacy, against increasingly formulaic, affected the romantic painting (Romanticism), but in c. koro, barbizon school, and g. courbet, under the impetus of the realistic painting style, such as absorption of the Netherlands, UK, Spain, Japan, China and other countries painting of nutrition, at the same time by the modern science, especially optical inspired, think all the color is light, so they according to the spectrum of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet seven color to color. Because the light is changing, they think only capture the split-second light shine can reveal the secrets of the nature. So pay attention to the research and external light in painting, to advocate outdoors, on the basis of the eyes in the sun towards the scene of the observation and painted, performance object under the light irradiation, the subtle changes in the color. The impressionist paintings on the processing of shadow, a black and use the traditional painting and brightness
Blue, violet wait for color. Impressionist painting point to replace the traditional painting simple line and plane, so as to achieve the traditional painting cannot be achieved by the light. Specifically, when we observed from nearby impressionist paintings, we see many different colour messy points, but when we watch them from a distance, these points will be like QiSeGuang together, give a person the sense of light, to achieve the effect of didn't.
Due to different personal interests, impressionist painter is divided into shigemitsu and colour and modelling and sketch two types, the former is represented by monet, renoir, which good for add, cami, pissarro is somewhere in between.
Due to the performance of the pursuit of light and colour, impressionist painter is mainly the life trivia and direct experiences as a subject, how to describe the characters in the reality and the natural scenery. Intercept more objective image on the composition of a fragment or to handle scenes, broke the boundary of painting and writing. These artists in the long process of sketching, found that the light had a great influence on color: different weather, different season, different time, the same scene can present different colors and different colors, combined with physical optics, were scientists discovered the rule, they had a new for the color changes in the air, the understanding of the science. Is also the church, for example, the painter in different time is painted a different colour effect, when the sun is shining, the object by sunlight part affected by the light source, can slant light source is tonal, and backlight or projection is not grey, but has the rich color composition; Again, for example, forest of autumn, a piece of golden color, and over the trunk and stones in the golden show isn't it the original natural color, but partial to purple, and so on. Artists to apply the law of color in the painting, "color" also arises at the historic moment.
Impressionist painters successively held 8 exhibition, the first two are strong opinion at the time
After fierce criticism, gradually become art genre, greatly influences and expand to the other arts. Impressionist paintings in the process of the formation and development, has got e. manet's support and encouragement.
As a kind of art trend, impressionism has an important position in world art history, it promoted the art techniques innovation and concept transformation, to Europe and the United States, Japan and China artists had a big or
Impressionist painting genre is in the second half of the 19th century, was born in France, the representative of monet, manet, pissarro, renoir, west weasley, degas, ROM, Murray, the qi and Paul Cezanne. They inherited the French Realism (Realism) senior painter courbet, "let art for contemporary life" tradition, make further out of his creation dependence on history, mythology, art, theme, out of telling the story of traditional painting programs, artists are out of the studio, thorough fields and villages, streets, put on the natural pure and fresh and vivid sensory in the first place, bathed in the light of the natural scenery earnest observation, seek and grasp the color changes in temperature changes and interaction, by seemingly random actually accurately grasp object fast to the change in the color of the light not effect record on the canvas, instant eternal image. This derived from direct light sketch way and capture the vivid impression of all kinds of style, and the present is revolution of impressionist painting creation and painting. Impressionist art movement in all countries, the influence of the obtained brilliant achievements. Until today, their works are still popular art treasures.
e flood in the boat"
On 10 October 2004 solstice on November 27, held in national art museum of China "the French impressionist paintings ZhenPinZhan" is the opening game of the French culture year. The exhibition by the People's Republic of China ministry of culture and cultural communications of the republic of France, China art museum, Shanghai art museum, and undertake the orsay museum. After the exhibition in Beijing will move on to the Shanghai art museum and the Hong Kong museum of art.
In 2016, 90 years after the death of monet, internationally renowned smithsonian brand "monet impression: time reflected trace art exhibition", after on display in South Korea, Japan and more introduced by shenzhen small fort orange culture communication co., LTD. China open China tour trip. , will stand, led by chengdu fashion landmark IFS international financial center, and in turn through chengdu four host cities, Beijing, Shanghai and guangzhou.
Faw art new CROWN CROWN "monet impression: time reflected trace art exhibition" is expected to be in China the total ten city tour, covering 4 million high net worth families. Will use the world cutting-edge digital imaging to show more than 400 of valuable masterpieces monet, lively tour of the famous "impression, sunrise", "water lily", and the mystery of the monet gardens, realization of works of art "within reach", known as "the world's largest monet exhibition" "a flow of monet museum".
Impressionist music editing
Impressionism music was invented by the French composer Debussy. Impressionism is a word first appeared in 1887 in the music, the judges of the French institute of fine arts has accused Debussy in Rome's education when the second "in work" symphony called "spring" structure is not clear, for his "alert to fuzzy impressionism". In 1894 his "string quartet" premiered in Brussels, the critics began to use "impressionism music" to praise them. After the term is often used to generalize Debussy and style with the music he is close to, and no longer have BianYi.
The technique of expression
The generation of impressionism music from the late romanticism and ethnic music evolved from a pie, but also absorb the nutrients of the Oriental music. The artistic technique of expression are as follows:
(1) in short and to the tune of cells into the motivation of a novel vocabulary.
(2) on the art like complex arts and complex art, the beat irregularly segmentation weakened the impetus, loose flow state.
(3) attaches great importance to the mode of expression, adopt the corresponding mode according to the image requirement. Expand the concept of tonality, often avoid explicit able to type. The use of the full scale every note of the mode in the same position, has weakened the center feeling, appear more tonal factors.
(4) because the be fond of of different color and sound pattern of the flat, painting, and become the most important means of performance. Weakened by increasing the possibility of chord structure and functional harmony, extremely rich chords.
(5) tone color is rich, unique and novel. In vocal music works often use lack luster and plays the bass area of strength. Widely used in all kinds of musical instrument works on the means of colour.
6. Instruments and arrange new texture.
All landowners structure tend to loose the fuzzy, but many still can see the outline of the trilogy type.
Debussy, although to be a composer in impressionist category entirely, however, the actual effects of impressionism music style and technique has throughout the music world.
The world is always called Debussy impressionist composers, but he was very angry, this in fact impressionistic poet (like mallarme, wrong, maeterlinck, etc.) of Debussy's significance is far more great than the impressionist paintings.
Impressionist painters is to capture light feeling, and Debussy, like the painter, he try to music to capture things impression or mood, and want to use the most economical way to get somewhere right nature setting down.
Debussy is a revolutionary musician, his innovation harmony and melody, in his music, color, tone and art as the importance of harmony and melody. Although there are tonal for his work, but almost is on the verge of breakup. After innovation of Debussy music creation is no longer restricted by established rules, reform atmosphere from now on.
The music of Debussy almost have the title, but does not mean he is interested in writing the title music, he never said of the story, rather than an impression on the audience, his music was only suggests a certain image, people don't understand that. Debussy, once said: "I am the most despised those who cower in an attempt to make sense of music".
Debussy rather adore Wagner in his early years, but under the influence of sa for the frenzy dies soon, he calls himself "the French composer", meaning in expressing the anti-china stance, to further show that during the first world war against the German. He is going to France inherent pure and fresh and lovely, elegant and deutsche cumbersome, massiness clumsy compared, "he thought, the French people will delicate and colour as the eye, so if the French musician for pyramiding loudness can, it is not the French style.
The famous French composer, one of the most outstanding representatives of impressionist composers. Early impressionistic music is keen on contrast, light and shadow in the mystery of the game, which he himself reveled in the lengthy impression; And ravel as impressionist musician is greatly developed the expressive force of impressionist music, he loved the spraying a colourful, sparkling artificial fireworks, love and poetical loud noises. He is both a master of music form, and gives music rich color, in addition, he kept the Vienna classical arts, and by original technique using the traditional taboo to form their own unique works of music language and form. For descriptive music, he argues that does not pay attention to the external things, but to focus on things as they really are and rich color, and that the real poems is not long, but in the real feelings. His representative works include "daphne and Croatia" opera, ballet, "mother goose", the violins tzigane and orchestral pollet luo dance music. In addition, he will jose sol of piano solos "picture show" based on orchestral suite for the same name, this song widely circulated. Dance music works: Mr Pollet, tzigane, "daphne and Croatia" suite.
Impressionist literary editor
Literary historians are think that impressionism later into the literature in the 1870 s, but literary impressionism in performance, writers and poets which belonged to the impressionism, but have different opinions. Can be determined only in the late 19th century early 20th century, Western Europe some astronomers did have that kind of design methods of impressionist painting and music, which is committed to capture the transient nature of fuzzy sense impression. Due to the special nature of literature, literature of impressionist pay more attention to how this moment feeling experience into emotional state. They have the same with the impressionist painting and music, also opposed to the description of the relationship between the things of the logical or rational refining processing, and they also became convey external mediation between stimulus and instinctive reaction.
Impressionism between literature and symbolism literature class place, they are all formalism literary genre; But they also have different, mainly impressionism, opposes the use of symbolism to express ideas and tend to feel. Is often thought of some poet of symbolism, prefers to impressionism, such as symbolism, one of the leader, Paul Paul verlaine "odes" a poem, is not so much talking about symbolism, as a declaration of impressionism.
The goncourt brothers
Of French literature at the goncourt brothers, as the representative of impressionism novel, another is viewed as the French impressionism representative poet, novelist, Pierre loti, indeed some of his poetry as impressionists in "capture instant sense impression", but not all the work. Some French writer in the 20th century is seriously affected by the impressionism, in some sense impression left in the novel of hazy pursuit.
Britain in the late 19th century is part of the works of Oscar Wilde, etc, the tendency of impressionism. In 1912 ~ 1918 in London as part of the British and American poets of the poetry image, like the impressionism stressed sense impression, but what they claim to pursue is "clear, hale and hearty" image. They think that the image of a fuzzy and unclear is the remnants of romanticism, and thus to be attacked. But theoretically differences sometimes is difficult to detect in the art practice, such as American poet ai of imagist Lowell, abdullahi doolittle, John gore DE Fletcher and others many works and impressionist poetry without each other.
Is also similar in German literature, literary historians are unable to confirm the impressionist school boundaries clear. Good for, joachim loew, sealing, Li Lien g dragon, including Richard Richard dehmel, gustave falk, is considered to be the German impressionism tend to be the most obvious poetry, but they emphasize truthfully record the things to the poet's sense experience, so close to the nature of socialism. In addition, such as Hugo hoffman starr and Mr Arnault, holtz and others a lot of poems also has the varying tendency of impressionism.
Impressionism is a word also refers to a kind of literary criticism, called impressionism criticism, i.e. type criticism. This criticism refused to work for a rational scientific analysis, and critics of aesthetic artion, think the best criticism just record critics feel beautiful process, up to point out that this impression is how of beauty, is under the condition of which is felt. Therefore, impressionism criticism is a kind of hazy, there is no clear demonstration of poem poetry efforts "to solve the" type of criticism, and often written prose format, literary criticism has become a kind of and there is no essential difference between the literary arts, writing this text critics often itself, that is, the poet or writer.
In 1889, the Britain held the French impressionist painting exhibition for the first time. Painting sent photographers Robinson under its influence, put forward "soft tone photography more beautiful than sharp photography" aesthetic standards, advocate "soft tone" photography. Impressionism in this genre is painting
Reflected in the field of photography art.
Start, they use soft focus lens, wove develop, the pursuit of a fuzzy hazy artistic effect. As "silver bromide photo development method" and "in pigment mixed with dichromate plastic washing method of photographic paper, impressionist works from the control of the lens imaging development to the darkroom for processing. They put forward "to make the work doesn't look like pictures", and that "if there were no painting, there would be no real photography".
Guided by this art, impressionist photographer also using brushes, pencils, erasers on picture processing, deliberately changed its original tone change, the effect of the pursuit of "painting", such as, roya creation in 1900 of the sweep park person ", just like a painting on the canvas of charcoal drawing. Impressionist photographers make their work completely lost the photography art characteristic, so people call it "FangHua pie". It is a branch of painting, photography.
The artistic features of this genre is depressed tone, shadow stripes rough, rich decoration, but the lack of space. Its famous photographers have duma (? - 1937), general (1857-1933), Qiu En (1866-1944), tile g (1848-1903), HuoFuMei's brother (1868-1943, 1868-1943), Du Erke's (1848-1918), PE (1874-1948), m (1870-1943), xin tun (1863-1908), in the (1861-1947), etc.
Impressionist film France in the 1920 s movie creator Louis DiLvKe unite a group of brilliant director,
Such as Abel, okada, zhe min, drucker, etc and some achievements obtained in commercial film has film director, want to in the film company boss films for commercial considerations in the reform, in order to enhance in a French movie wane after world war ii. But its efforts have not been producers support, in 1924 after the death of DiLvKe movement that failed. Some people go to commercial, another part is to the avant-garde road. Because of DiLvKe art and creation concepts and later, French avant-garde movement has a close connection, so just sent most film is considered to be the prelude to avant-garde movies or directly to avant-garde movies. Important works include okada, "wheels" (1922), DiLvKe "fever" drucker (1921) "the Spanish festival" (1919), etc.