Post-impressionism is the French art history of the fine arts phenomenon
Post-impressionism is the French art history of the fine arts phenomenon, also known as the "impressionism" or "post-impressionist", the word by the British art critic and a former New York metropolitan museum curator him (Roger Fry, 1866-1934). Representative of Cezanne (Paul Cezanne, 1839-1906), Paul Gauguin, Paul Gauguin, 1848-1903), and Van Gogh, Vincent Van Gogh, 1853-1890), etc.
Chinese name After the Post - Impressionism Impressionism foreign name representative Cezanne, Paul gauguin, Vincent van gogh in country of France
1 historical origin
2 the development process
Three main characteristics
Four main influence
Forced the Cezanne
Forced the gorgon
Forced the van gogh
Post-impressionism by British art critic and a former New York metropolitan museum curator him (Roger Fry, 1866-1934). He wants to "starry night"
Paul Cezanne, make a point, you need a new term. For decades, the French did not distinguish between the three and impressionism, just use the term to distinguish them and those major famous. Although Paul Cezanne, most of the time of her life with that group of artists works on display, but after the "impressionism" is still a convenient terms to highlight the three subsequent painters, and they are really very different with the group.
The three artists are died a long time to get social recognition, the three of them together opens the door of modern art, in their art thought and artistic concept produced under the influence of the beast, cubism, expressionism, abstract expressionism, etc., are they completely changed the face of western painting, from the objective reappearance to the oil painting subjective expression, and make it into a modern, they were known as the father of modern art.
Strictly speaking Post-impressionism isn't a painting, not groups between them, there is no joint open exhibition, more no declaration, only three were based on impressionism and common creation tendency. Art historian who later found they both contact impressionism and different from impressionism, they said they were "impression".
The development process
Post-impressionism refers to the Cezanne, van gogh and gauguin art idea and art creation. They are three people first learn to impressionism. Cezanne and gauguin also participated in the impressionist painting, van gogh, although did not take part in impressionist exhibition, but he has been claimed to be impressionism. Later three of them think just like impressionist painting to imitate the objective world, and should show the painter to the subjective feeling of objective things, though they have a common creation tendency and has its distinctive artistic personality: the art activities of Cezanne's life is in pursuit of mind and immutability of the form of solid structure, to create the image of the weight, volume, stability and magnificent feeling, finally to achieve the effect of simplification and geometric, which made him became the father of cubism and abstract expressionism. Not to face real more high, and paint from memory, promoting comprehensive and symbol of aesthetic principles. Van gogh's new style, can be said to be the new impressionism impressionism,, Japanese yamato-e prints fusion in his personal temperament, the products of is the result of a confluence of eastern and western painting. Van gogh's paintings, a prominent characteristic is strongly showed his own personality. It is said that his paintings are his self-portrait. He is the forerunner of expressionism, and deeply influenced the art of the 20th century, especially the brutalist and expressionism.
From the impressionist art exhibition for the first time in about ten years later, an "independent artists association" organization announcement was born in France. They are the development of the art and practice of impressionism and backwash, they used the test principle of optical science to guide the art practice, is the science consciously applied in color. They claim to be the new impressionism, seurat is the genre's only theorist and outstanding artists, west snake is the important painters and propaganda mouthpiece.
New impressionist technique is based on segmentation, also called stippling socialism - with comparative and intense
Different pure color dots or small pieces of science, when viewed from a distance the audience to obtain mixed color effects on its own. The whole picture is full of color dots (block), image division also not line, all the landscape was immersed in the flickering light. Color points (piece of) the same size and compatible with the proportion of the whole picture. The use of the light is still as strong as impressionism, but the overall effect is stable, accurate, harmonious and solemn, they tried to restore again after being in his impressionist ignored by the weight of the object modelling, impressionism is idealized form of flashes of light and atmosphere. New impression on the one hand the scientific experiment and rules of the impressionism, on the other hand also bound by the principle of fixed, therefore condemned its short life. New impressionism in the 1890 s that had disappeared.
Post-impressionism is exist in the 19th century 80 s to 90 s art phenomenon, does not contain style significance. These artists are different from impressionist fanatical pursuit of light and colour, it is also different from the new impressionist light color analysis and logical thinking in art creation. They advocate refocus on art in the form of idea, attach importance to the author's subjective personality, pay attention to the performance in the work of the author's subjective feelings and emotions, pay attention to the form of expression. Is often referred to as the impressionist painter Cezanne, van gogh and gauguin.
Impressionist painter after exploring process and results of a large impact on western modern art schools in the 20th century. Cezanne's painting out of literariness and plot, give full play to the expressional strength of painting language, promote the popularity of the European concept of pure painting and the development of formalism painting, is known as
"The father of modern painting" in the west. His works focus on concept, pay attention to structure, pay attention to the construction of the picture. His in-depth study of decent and attaches great importance to, pregnant with the factors of cubism. Van gogh's work contains deep tragic consciousness, he boldly explore, the freedom to express my feelings, the pursuit of a strong personality and unique form of far away in front of the era. Then beast, German expressionism, lyrical abstraction that appeared in the early 20th century, have abundant thick from van gogh's art. High is more affected by symbolism aesthetic concepts, works full of primitive art abstraction, mysterious and symbolic factors, combined with his delicate taste, a form of graphic drawing, rich decorative effect, form the distinctive artistic features. He promoted the development of the modern symbol art, also have far-reaching influence to later surrealism.
The main features
Can be regarded as a 19th century impressionist movement the peak of the naturalism tendency, also can be regarded as a starting point of modern art. Impressionist paintings focus light painting outside, the role of theme was weakened, and expand the interest to the thought of subject matter. Impressionist painting to reproduce the natural objects moments of light color relations, for the purpose of it is basically a figure painting style, in this sense, the impressionism is the development of the baroque, realism is an extension of the visual experiment, since the Renaissance "reproducibility" traditional painting is the consummation of development. The early stage of the impressionist masters character mainly monet, degas and renoir.
Impressionism is a loose art community. This club has no clear outline. Artists gather together, just because the style is consistent, facilitate joint exhibitions. Participate in the exhibition of the artist, some only for a period of time have a crush on impressionist painting style, then another pursuit; Some change in painting style has repeatedly over and over again. In addition, participate in painters have taken different levels. The impressionist painting and the French literary naturalism is the group of corresponding. Impressionism and naturalism has been influenced by positivism on philosophy.
Post-impressionism art movement is between 1885 and 1905 in a painting style of France, it includes all impressionist derived or art movement, in contrast to such as: new impressionism and symbolism, comprehensive and nabi pie and so on. Impressionism and post impressionism is a feeling, but with the scientific method, is a kind of very objective art, is also the result of the realism overly developed. The objective of scientific philosophy and literature, painting and his subjective arts, that is, based on the character of strong self-expression. Another influenced by Oriental landscape painting style of simplicity, and more precise and correct the pure objective of photography to comparative point of view, are the reasons why provoked a post-impressionist art rise.
In layman's terms, impressionism is evanescent light color effect, excessive pursue feelings light, replace the inevitable with accident. Since it is by feeling, it is necessarily subjective, so the impressionist's depiction of the use of subjective color is to depict the objective things
Impressionist completely different, after the first their subjective feelings, show their subjective feelings, this kind of color is the original objective object color is not important, more important is to use the object to express our own inner a subjective feelings, so this kind of painting more is that it isn't like impressionism imitation of the world, but expressed the painter of the objective world's subjective feeling. If you are very bad mood that day, or gloomy, even the sun dark you will feel very bleak. This is the person's subjective feeling for the different reflection of the objective world.
The main influence
Impressionism is inspired to the rise of the optical art, has the quite scientific, development to a new impressionism is the use of optical principles to an extreme. If from the perspective of art is the product of emotion, they are biased art, starting from the most essential of art, impressionism truly is a art, after as impressionism, of rebellion against the traditional impression after forms the personal feelings and thoughts, appeared an unprecedented revolution. In Chinese culture from zhuang zi's "nature and man, and a" appeared in the west of this period. Impressionist painting after deviated from the artistic traditions of western objective reappear, inspiring the modernist trend of art, and emphasizes structure order of abstract art (such as cubism, style, etc.) and emphasizes the subjective emotion of expressionism (such as the beast, German expressionism, etc.). So, in the history of art, impressionism is called after the origin of the western modern art.
Literary works have heavy content and forms of two types. Before you can say that, in the impressionist, focus is all on the content and objective, especially classical, directly originated from the religious subjects, for religious services, never out of the shadow of literature, not to find the art itself, namely on the concept of "beauty". And "beauty" itself, pure beauty, in other words, namely "form". Not eliminate don't content, but focuses more on the external manifestation of emotion, I think I draw, I draw, therefore I am, pay more attention to the existence of individual life value; While the western art truly entering a strong publicity personality, age of freedom, the performance art is no longer religious propaganda tools, from then on, art also have a philosophy on life as the ultimate thinking.
In fact, the more individual character also then more have in common, the more personal also then the world, because of, is a member of the group, after the occurrence of impressionism, is the human inherent emotion in mining and rule.
Impression, therefore, the impression of former is inheritance, is expanding to after, is the essential role. Can, for example, impressionism is equivalent to the founding fathers, then impressionism is a prosperous period of the zhenguan can explain the real art from now on. After the impressionist school, pay attention to how to emphasize performance in painting the painter's subjective emotion and inner world, is not one-sided pursuit of light and color effects on the real feeling, but a more subjective emotional factors and symbolic of the spirit of ideas. The concept of change, is of epoch-making significance.
Representative of Cezanne (Paul Cezanne, 1839-1906), Paul Gauguin, Paul Gauguin, 1848-1903), and Van Gogh, Vincent Van Gogh, 1853-1890), etc.
Its creation is attaches great importance to the shape and Cezanne "Orwell's labyrinth" (oil painting) constitute a form of lines, color piece and a body, face, and a strong heart and personalization. Is only used by each art language is different. Cezanne's notice to concreteness, stability, and internal structure of the materials, such as cubism, constructivism has great promotion. Van gogh pursuit of line and color their own expression and decorative picture, directly inspired beast school of aesthetic, expressionism and so on. Is more focused on artistic expression of primitiveness and symbolic, give the symbolism, surrealism and other genres to important influence. Impressionism completely abandoned after the naturalistic attitude, shaken to simulate for the foundations of the functions in western painting, painting into a more novel, more saturated with strong emotions of the subjective world, as the 20th century the western modern art schools provides a paradigm for reference. In addition in some art history: Post-impressionism and other representative slaughter column g (disability aristocrat, lower limb disabled, his paintings mainly by the red light district hotels and bars such as prostitutes in the lower classes in subjects) and others.
Cezanne's sitting in a red armchair Cezanne lady is for painting a portrait of his wife. In this
A work of a basket of apples, Cezanne completely without considering what happens in a traditional western portrait of characters, psychological status and social status, and so on. On the technique of expression, nor in the traditional method on the simple sense of light and shadow to describe. But colour modelling method is used to achieve the combination of the pursuit of color and form of his life. The performance of the color and form became Cezanne's pursuit of "the nature of the modelling" life. His emphasis on the pursuit of art form creation tendency, the emergence and development of the western modernism art has the profound influence, therefore, known as the "father" of western modern painting.
"A basket of apples" France cloth Cezanne's painting art institute of Chicago longitudinal and transverse 65 x 81 cm
A rough wooden desk, put a piece of cloth, the above display some apples, bottle, basket, plates... Cezanne's very carefully for each an apple on the surface of the body and structure, color is rigorous, stroke is thick thick. When the brush can't reflect the strong sense of color, he directly with the palette knife thick goes up. For object stereo feeling, he is almost in passion to partition their relationship between the volume and area, focusing on the thickness of the object and the depth of the stereo. Images through the white tablecloth and the strong contrast of bright fruit, highlighted the color contrast of changes in temperature. Round, semicircle, square and flat foil each other, curve, vertical and diagonal lines are staggered, the color and line symphony, form the unified and harmonious layout, the person gives on the vision with strong stimulation, also gave the viewer a memorable artistic effect. The colour of the still life is so simple, so dynamic.
Gauguin's "two tahitian women by the sea" is he travelled to Tahiti is an object with local indigenous peoples creation of painting. This work is the first to give people the impression that is primitive and exotic formed by the strong combination of color piece of decoration. The dimensional feeling of western traditional painting pays attention to the screen replaced by images of planarity. More of this kind of high pure and strong color painting, contain the painter strong subjective feelings. The later fauvism and expressionist paintings have important influence.
Jacob and angels fighting this picture looks like to be the work of religious subjects, is actually a symbolic characteristics, depicting Brittany on the farmer when the vicar interpretation doctrine, illusion produced by sight. Painting is people the illusion of the mind, to realism on the show, so people not a Christian image of the painting. Brittany farmer head wearing a funny hat, to strengthen the adornment effect of the images, and religious legends "struggle" in the scene, but is processed in less obvious places, to symbolize the pious Brittany farmer mind reflected by the illusion. This topic makes his paintings seem mystification, red blue black and white picture here, is a design, bending rolling line, similar to the Byzantine Mosaic. Because of the complexity of the content and form, also complicate the gauguin's artistic style, so the historian says it is a "comprehensive" high more of this kind of style is also influenced by the later French nabi pie and the beast.
The yellow Christ, gauguin, in 1889, oil paintings, 92 x 73 cm meters, buffalo, Europe"
- Knox gallery to hide.
Oil painting yellow Christ, with flat surface, the color of dense, bold Outlines and contracted modelling, reflect the high more "comprehensive" painting style. The entire screen by the prospect of characters, the vertical columns of the cross, and the horizontal bar at the top of the support. Field, the sky and cross over to strip shape, and women's image turn round the curve of the ups and downs, and the trees produce contrast; The flat extension of shape, and round curved closed form, form a strong contrast. All thing has unified in a lively and simple graphics. Although color gorgeous, they show the actual scenery natural plain; Although the image of women is elegant, the temperament of the cultivators, however, is still a clear.
Painting, color uniform plane and lines around the image, embody the high more for deliberate pursuit of simplicity, simplified means, this in contrast with impressionism style. Painting reflects the painter for painted objects, meticulous observation: the woman's dress style is very precise, the picture alone Brittany where cold light, go out fully in the field of green harmony, reddish brown and yellow. In addition, the cross is also a reference to pont-aven nearby church a shading the passion of woodcarving as he is painted. Here, however, the painter has surpassed naturalistic observation, and the pursuit of emotional expression. He wrote in his diary: "impressionist research color blindly, without freedom,... they only focus on their eyes, and the core of the mysterious thoughts, are indifferent, which has fallen to just scientific reasoning." For the expression of "mysterious core ideas", just is the goal of high more. Although he is not a farmer, but he was in his paintings, his found in actual people "has a strong local flavor and superstitious color, simple and innocent". He in order to simplify the composition of a picture, therefore, make the space complanation, at the same time, make contour line becomes heavy, and strengthen the concentration of color, its purpose, is to make the picture is no longer just an objective observer of the record, but a kind of simple, direct visual symbol of pious religious belief.
Van gogh's moon night "is a work with strong subjective feelings. The painter to bold and unrestrained
Van gogh "self-portrait"
Similar brush strokes of fire that depicts the strange of the moon and the stars in the night sky. That a large get into the vortex of the blue and yellow sky, seems to have become a wandering again and again the light beam of a kind of diffusion, make people dizzy. This is the natural language of the thoughts and feelings of the van gogh's restlessness, which also contains the painter had an art of irrationality after trauma. Van gogh's subjective emotion that performance, give full play to the colour of emotional factors. And impressionist paintings only stay in describing the beauty of the light and color of the objective world appearance has a fundamental difference.
"The potato eaters," van gogh, in 1885, oil paintings, 82 * 114 cm, Amsterdam, the national art of Vincent van gogh collection. Van gogh's early social contact, to the poor life of laborer. He wanted to be a farmer affected by miller, a painter. "The potato eaters" is his masterpiece during this period. This painting, fully reflects the social morality of van gogh. He chose to draw those farmers, mainly because he found himself and the working poor, have some sort of mental and emotional resonance. He wrote in the letter to his brother theo: "I want to emphasize that the potato eaters under the lamp, is to use them this pair of hand digging land into plate. As a result, this work describes a manual workers, as well as how they honestly earned their food."
In this painting, plain and simple and honest farmers of the family, sitting in a small table, the table hung a lamp,
Become the focus of the picture. The yellow light on the haggard faces of the farmers, to make them stand out. The space of the low roof, make the room more appear crowded. Shades of gray, give a person the sense with dull and depressing. As its composition and concise, pure servant of image. Painters to coarse, elegant brushwork, depicting characters is full of wrinkles and the bony figure. Background color pale, thin foil a prospect of character image. Van gogh himself said that painting is the birth of "expressionism". He said: "I don't want to make the characters in the picture real. Real painter objects, not according to the object
Live,... But according to their feelings. I adore Michelangelo's character, although their legs were too long, hip is too big. "he was accused of the image in the painting is not accurate, but his answer was:" if my figures are accurate, I will feel despair,... I was to make the inaccuracies, these deviations, remake and change the reality, yes, they can not true, you can say - but more real than real real. "