Romanticism Art style in painting
Romanticism is one of the basic design methods of literature and art, with realism as the two main ideological trend of literature and art. As creation method, romantic on reflecting the objective reality, focus on starting from the subjective inner world, elicits the enthusiastic pursuit of ideal world, commonly used the language of enthusiasm is bold and unrestrained, imagination and exaggeration to shape the image of beauty. Romantic tendency has a long history, as early as in the human literature and art in oral work period, some works are different degree with romantic factors and characteristics, but at this moment the romantic neither form, not consciously creating method for people to grasp.
Many intellectuals and historians to romanticism, as for the enlightenment of the rebound is a kind of reflection to the enlightenment. Enlightenment thinker, emphasize the absoluteness of deductive reasoning, in contrast with the artion, imagination, and the romantic feeling, even to being criticized by some people as "irrational".
On the whole, the romantic movement from Europe in the late 18th century to early 19th century the emergence of many artists, poets, writers, musicians, and politicians, philosophers and other characters of spontaneous, but as for the detailed characteristics of romanticism and the definition of romanticism, until the 20th century are still is the subject of intellectual history and literary history field.
Charles baudelaire give is defined as: "the romantic is neither ear out, also not emphasize entirely accurate, but is located in the middle of the two points, go with feeling."
Chinese name Romantic foreign names Romanticism origin in medieval French carried this release righteousness enthusiastic pursuit of ideal world literary and artistic creation characteristics, magnificent to the imagination, exaggerated, enthusiasm is bold and unrestrained Literature ode to west wind, don Juan, the white whale, will go to wine Representative writers, Shelley and byron, li bai, Hugo, Goethe art leads the people freely, the French revolution on behalf of the painter delacroix, ko represented by musicians Schubert, schumann, Chopin, liszt
It is the product of the French revolution of the social ideological trend. Revolution advocated by the thought of "freedom, equality, fraternity" to promote personality liberation and emotional express request, the emphasis on individual independence and freedom, become the core idea of the romantic literature.
Although the romantic spirit, has a long history, but romantic in the Lord
The rise of righteousness, that was before the French revolution, tide of European democratic movement and national liberation movement. It reflects the bourgeois rising demand for personality liberation, is political revolt against feudal lords and Christian church joint rule, is also in literature and art of French neoclassical resistance.
The enlightenment on the political made prepared for the French revolution, and also for Europe's romantic movement in literature and art were prepared. After the victory of the French revolution, however, the establishment of the bourgeois dictatorship and capitalist society order, but the burst of the enlightenment ideals.
"Colorful language and enlightenment scholars, established by the 'rational victory turns out to be a social system and political system is extremely disappointed caricature." (Engels) across the European romantic movement, it is the social from all walks of life to the consequences of the French revolution and the enlightenment thinkers have put forward the "kingdom of reason" a reflection of the widespread disappointment.
German classical oil painting philosophy and utopian socialism for romantic literature provides a theoretical basis. Kant, fauci pl classical philosophers emphasize the genius, inspiration and subjective initiative, all mentioned above self, thus the romantic literature emphasizes the subjective spirit and individualism tendency has exerted a far-reaching influence. Utopian socialism sharp criticism of the capitalism, the prediction on the outlook for the future ideal society, also have a big impact on romantic literature.
On the literary tradition, medieval knight legend and romantic have direct origin, romantic word is a word that comes from the legend. And 18 th-century English sentimentalism literature and Rousseau's advocation, to express affection to the 19th century paved the way for the rise of romantic literature and prosperity.
The term "Romantic", is a "Romantic" (Romantic, Romantic) evolved the adjective. And the adjective "romantic" and "Romance" from France (American, namely "legend" or "novel") transformation. In 1654, according to the existing data demonstrate the talent for the first time to use the word "romantic", is roughly "legendary", "fantasy" and "not true", which obviously contains BianYi negative connotations. By the 18th century, the only gradually transformed into positive commendatory words, it is used to evaluation work, and get the sadness of "pleasant" such an additional meaning.
Can often be found in the romantic literature is in the past history of criticism, emphasis on women and children, the respect for nature. In addition, some romantic literature writers such as Nathaniel hawthorne, will their work foundation in natural/occult and on the basis of human psychology, they are deeply fascinated. Scottish poet James McPherson (James Macpherson) published in 1762 of poetry was an international reputation, greatly influenced the development of the early romantic literature, but also influenced the later Goethe and Scott.
School development editor
Romanticism as a literary thinking of European literature, generated by the end of the 18th century to the early 19th century bourgeois revolution and national liberation movement in s. It is politically against the feudal autocracy, in art and classical opposite, belongs to a kind of ideology of capitalism.
At the end of 18th century, with romantic thoughts contribute in European literary circles, the term "romantic" is used very popular, and in the name of France in 1798 to study the other creation method. It is reflected in all areas of art: Germany is poetry and music; The UK is poetry, novels, and landscape; France is the painting and sculpture.
European romantic ethos, is in the people's disappointment to the enlightenment "reason kingdom", to the bourgeois revolution in the "freedom, equality, fraternity" slogan of disillusionment and dissatisfaction with the capitalist social order of historical conditions. "The writers were dissatisfied with the reality, in an attempt to seek the path of solving social contradictions. But due to the writer's class position and political attitude is different, so the romantic thoughts in the form of two opposing schools, namely the positive romanticism and negative romanticism. The former is the tide of progress, it leads people to look forward, and the latter is a reactionary countercurrent, it guides the people back. This kind of difference, is essentially to the French revolution and the enlightenment of two very different responses.
Dare to face up to reality, criticized the darkness of the society, finger against the feudal aristocracy, against the remaining in the capitalist society
Caused by the feudal factors, at the same time of the bourgeoisie itself also expose the evils of the phenomena, so full of resistance, the passion of fighting, send the ideal in the future, to yearn for a new good life, some dream in favor of socialism. Representative writers have British byron, Shelley, Stevenson, France Hugo, George sang, Germany Heine, Russian pushkin (early), Poland's secret, he hits and Hungary petofi and so on. Their life and art practice, it is with the idea of the bourgeois democratic revolution, the national liberation movement together with other countries, most writers are active participants of the national liberation movement.
Negative romantic face the social reality of no sharp contradictions, avoid negative attitude, the idea is to overthrow the feudal aristocracy with that thought consciousness associated. They set off from the campaign against bourgeois revolution, against the status quo, want to stay in the past, beautify the medieval patriarchal clan, fantasy from the ancient feudal society to seek spiritual comfort and sustenance. The emergence of negative romanticism is, in fact, was to overthrow the feudal aristocracy downfallen thought emotion in literature. Representative writers have German Shi Leige brothers, namely, Shi Leige and Christopher Shi Leige, nova, summer cloth more Lyon in France, Martin pooh, Russia zhukov, Britain Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, and so on.
The rise of romanticism trend decline, it is decided by the characteristics of the historical conditions around the world. As a kind of molding and postmodernism produced in Germany in the first place. Due to the German juncker aristocrats rampant, the bourgeoisie weak, thus negative romanticism, positive romanticism developmental delay. Only after Heine boarded the literary world, positive romanticism to pick-up in Germany.
Romantic thoughts development the most complete, most specifications, most accomplished when pushed Britain. The British romantic master
Just sport compared with other countries, and has the following features;
First of all, the British romanticism no formation of a massive literature, it is the form of free activities by a writer.
Secondly, British romantic goes back to ancient times, is like a river running water, flowing constantly, lasted for 150 years. As early as the end of the 18th century, from William Blake (1757-1827) and peasant poet Robert pence (1759-1796) and others in the poem, put a romantic, with byron and Shelley's poems as a climax in the 1820 s, until the end of the 19th century (reigned 1837-1901), the ruling queen Victoria times, still can from Tennyson, Robert Browning, and his wife, Elizabeth Barrett Browning and others in the poetry, saw more than romantic.
Again, the British romanticism divided into opposing two factions. Negative romantic ahead of positive romanticism boarded the stage of literature and art, is the main representative Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey. Rival, is to byron, Shelley, Keats is romantic.
French romantic thoughts, like the waves of the sea, great momentums, spectacular, both sudden, fierce abnormalities. Its generation and development is repeatedly with the restoration of the feudal aristocracy and the bourgeois struggle inseparable.
The romantic first kill from the obstacles of classical set, after hand-to-hand fighting, every victory. Then in the romantic Angle of internal return, positive romantic organized, including critical realism writer, a broad united front, defeated the negative romanticism.
Before the 1820 s, the negative romantic hegemony, 20 s and 30 s, due to the victory of the bourgeoisie politically, positive romanticism rise abruptly. And obtained the dominant position.
In Russia, the development of romanticism is late. It was formed in the early 19th century as a genre. The positive romanticism and the Russian socialist movement closely linked, December in the noble revolution progress played a significant role. On behalf of the early writers have pushkin, ray column, etc.
Art features editor
1, focus on ideals of subjective, elicits strong personal feelings.
The romantic reality dissatisfaction after the French revolution, tends to idealize his life of the capitalism; Romantic writers deeply the rational of literary and artistic creation is made known by the classical  a kind of chains, and emphasizes the creation of absolute freedom, against the classical discipline, breakthrough to portray reality of scope, the emotion and imagination to mention primacy. They pay special attention to love, to the person's dream is to a large number of descriptions.
2, describe natural scenery, eulogized nature.
Because of material civilization of capitalism, dislike vulgarity ugly reality, for the fear and loathing of industrialization becomes the romantic poet, has the characteristics of the majestic and magnificent nature and distant bizarre scene, became romantic writer hopes the liberal ideals. In their works, the beauty of nature with the sublime often ugly version of city life form sharp contrast, a few special characters tend to hang out in the middle of the nature or strange and exotic environment. Their talent is Rousseau's "return to nature", the nature is regarded as the symbol of a mysterious power or some kind of mental state. Romantic writers not only sings its natural beauty, and willing to render the exotic scenery, such as the jungle and savannah of America, the Mediterranean countries, ethnic minorities living customs, gothic architecture, ancient ruins, and so on.
3, have a passion for description of the middle ages and the history of the past.
Since Scott to Hugo, dumas romantic novelist, many historical themes as its subject matter. Their description is not emphasized reflects the historical truth, and in the imagination of self-expression, history is often just capture a small interlude, vague on the episode in the history books, can let the author run free. Some romantic beautify the medieval feudal patriarchal system, the middle ages as a "golden age" to confrontation with capitalism.
4, pay attention to folk literature, especially the folk literature of middle ages.
In Germany and the UK, romanticism begins to collect folk literature of the middle ages, therefore also put forward the slogan of "back to the middle ages". This is because the medieval folk literature from the classical discipline, its rich imagination, emotion sincere, freedom of expression, in popular language.
1, romantic literature of various art forms had fruitful exploration, and the most outstanding achievements in poetry, which is particularly compelling verse novel creation. Verse novels is developed on the basis of the poetic drama, its field of vision is broad, expand the scope of poetry reflect reality.
2, romantic literature comparison, exaggeration and imagination, is commonly used words also tend to be all the way. Seeking a strong romantic artistic effect, the pursuit of an unusual plot, describe unusual events, depicting extraordinary personality, creates extraordinary, lonely rebellious image, these are inseparable from the comparison, exaggeration and imagination.
3, melancholy sentimental appeal for romantic writer hobby. Melancholy is a romantic not in coordination with the surrounding reality of mental state, not only the nostalgia of melancholy, also have a bourgeois dissatisfaction with the reality of melancholy, "disease" of the century is depressed disease, Rene is typical.
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William Blake (1757-1827). Many scholars regard as the starting point of the era of British romanticism poet Blake, since his English literature into a trend of changing times. But some disagree, because almost nobody knows when he is alive, for contemporary people has no substantial effect, its main poet status was established scholars in the 20th century. Second, black brushwork singularity, don't like Wordsworth, in the language of guileless, straight on behalf of the modern style. Black is keen to build the unique ideological system, in particular, he can put forward and with different attitude many intense and profound ponder writer's block.
William Wordsworth (1770-1850). Critics have pointed out that Wordsworth is one of the two great innovators western lyric poetry (another petrarch), is the ancestor of modern poetry. In the history of literature, he dominated, written by Coleridge to participate in the lyrical ballads is considered after the Renaissance of the most important poetry, because it is in such aspects as theme, style, thoughts started the modern poetry creation. His poetry creation can be divided into three periods: before 1795, 1795-1807, 1807 years later, here in the middle of the stage was the peak of his period.
Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834). Was born in Devon, England, like William Wordsworth, is also a young father, sent to London after ten years, went to Cambridge school. Is for school students, but, prostitutes, opium all drink, often emotional fierce... Coleridge's magnum opus is often divided into two types: one kind is friendship poem or what he called a "talk" poem, another kind is symbolic poetry or mysterious. The former including the instrument of IO, roughly, the bodhi tree charmilles, frost night ", "depressing" and "to William Wordsworth," and so on. The latter mainly refers to the old after Yin ", "kubla khan," and "Chris teber" and so on.
George Gordon byron (1788-1824). Byron is one of the important contents in the 19th century the western spirit culture. He embodies the passion of times of the immortal, represents its intelligent, thoughtful, fury and power; He alone against the will of the Prometheus type, in the last century in the spiritual lives of the people of Europe were remarkable, so that changing the social structure, value judgment standard and the outlook of the culture ". (Russell) the individual genius, have great talent in the front of politicians and philosophers. His temperament is sensitive and violent, feeling deeply and delicate. But he also is a son of the degenerate, vain proud of Sir Alex ferguson and exclusive sadness egoist. He advocates the spirit of the great and magnificent career, but by the age of darkness. His heart is sad, he sigh filled the entire career... Weave the dream other poets, he was once considered the dream itself, in the poem, action, created a unique life between personality. He but is greater than the literature into literature. He said the essence of the two kinds of emotion that can limit his: love freedom, hate hypocrisy (political, religious, social, love, etc.), but he is a complicated contradictions assembly: micro lame from birth, but love the quartet roaming; As a noble, hierarchical, but also has civilian rebellion consciousness; He sometimes cloudy, anxious, but more show kind, humor, or playing with the relaxed; Before the time of his freedom, but stick to romantic antique style; Subjective confidence, he has rich experience of common sense; He has a strong sense of the patriarchy-centered, often appears in what he called a "women thinking"; He hated war, but is keen to "battle for freedom". In the end, he from the material and action into war, seems to be beyond or destroys a literary text, and to him to use action to create text interpretation of life.
Posey, than Shelley
Posey, than when Shelley (1792-1822). "Prometheus unbound" due to reflect its thought essence of center position in Shelley's poems. Four, the poetic drama written by Prometheus bound and liberation. The poem makes the two themes of the Shelley) - social change and human love, complementary, and matches them with two clues: Prometheus and his relationship with Jupiter, the good and evil respectively and reunited with Asia. The two clues by on behalf of the inevitability and the original vitality of hades to string, to influence the fate of the gods, decided to different characters of the battle. The poets Aeschylus's giant attract, because of his physical to virtue, the perfect personality, his basic selfless, no ambition, no jealousy, integrating human soul and eternal soul. Shelley wrote this poem without too much emphasis on the external changes, and pay more attention to self-perfection and the power of love, no longer involves the specific political freedom, and the focus in free yet profound meaning. Therefore, the concept of "Prometheus unbound" actually is poetry, aims to show the ideal life of mirage, provide the new enlightenment. Relative to real revolutionary spirit of byron and Shelley's revolutionary concept more ideal, and therefore more thoroughly, is negation of all aspects of the existing world philosophy. "If winter comes, can spring be far behind?" Shelley is the prophecy of a better world in the future will come, thought-provoking. Shelley was well known for its lyrics, inherit the tradition of Wordsworth, to nature into the poem, "ode to west wind", "cloud", "to a skylark" and other works, rhyme long, sincere, emotional ablaze with deep thoughts.
John Keats (1795-1821). The second generation of romantic poets are short-lived, Keats's sigh, at the age of only 26 years old, but left many beautiful poems, including Shakespeare and Dante, giant pen in that has yet to write fairly level work when I was young. Zhu, some people think that he is the most outstanding poet in the 19th century, he not only belongs to the romantic, set aestheticism and decadence are influenced by him. Although relatively European history, Keats's influence as byron, but when it comes to the history of English poetry, byron's reputation is not compared with Keats. Compared with Shelley, Keats is more willing to warm and cool to drawing viewers attitude to life drama, to play various roles in the real life of reality show the artist's interest, he is not rejected by art ideal finite things, but in specific human emotion has confirmed the existence of the infinite. Keats letter pointed out that in 1818, Wordsworth is Milton "deeper. Keats developed about faith, think that the world is" make deep valleys of the soul ", but no other way. Some critics believe that Keats's tendency is to discover new permanent value, mainly he not make us believe that the world is full of misery and oppression, but let's get up the courage to accept the fact that the world is full of joy, health, freedom. These belong to others, but as long as the fight for, can also belong to our own. Keats thought and art essence is to let us have the courage to believe that someone else is happy, and can feel heartfelt joy.
Ranging from editor
The theoretical origins of romanticism in Germany, but the highest achievement in literature in England and France. European romanticism appeared three times during the course of development climax. Is the first time in 1805 years or so, this period is the lake poets creation peak, summer cloth more Lyon in France and Mrs S darfur started introducing art of German romanticism. The second wave, from the beginning of the English poet byron, his work in 1815 and 1825 is popular in Europe, followed by Shelley and Keats. French literary relatively quiet during this period, but also has the talented poets such as Martin and pooh. In addition, the Italian Mr Bai, Mr Xie, as well as the German hoffman and others are also important romantic writers during this period. Romantic literature of the third climax in France, approximately from 1827 to 1827, with a master of romantic literature represented by Victor Hugo. During this period, the romantic thoughts spread to Russia, eastern Europe and the United States, in the United States produced Melville, Whitman romantic master, etc. After 1848, basic end of romantic literature movement, but the romantic sentiment has not vanished, continues to develop until today.
Is one of the most famous romantic literature of the early writer Goethe, published in 1774, his novel "the trouble of young werther" to describe a with rich perceptual and warm emotion to the story of the young writer, caused hundreds of thousands of youth in Europe worship and imitation. When Germany still is composed of a large number of separate states, Goethe's works of German nationalism consciousness to the rise of great power. Germany early important romantic writers also includes Ludwig "(Ludwig Tieck), Wallis [Novalis]. Heidelberg then became the center of the German romantic literature, many poets and writers such as exchange of party in local literary circles. Romantic literature often focuses on the emotion and imagination, other German romanticism literature often appear topics include travel, nature, and an ancient myth. Advanced German romantic literature is often with darker style, and also a bit of gothic novel.
Romanticism in English literature, in the later developed different forms, mainly is similar to the poet Wordsworth and Coleridge, they both co-authored the Lyrical Ballads (Lyrical Ballads) a book in an attempt to abandon augustine's poetry style, change to a more direct way of above things and subjects from traditional folk. The two poets works and also because the French revolution and the utopia thought has relations. William Blake has became the most stressed in the romantic feelings of the poet and painter, he also advocated: "I have to construct a set of other style, otherwise will be enslaved by the thoughts of others." Blake's works have also been affected by a lot of books of the middle ages. William Turner (j. m. w. Turner), John constable is viewed as the romantic artist, and byron, Shelley, Mary Shelley, Keats and others have also been considered is the representative figure of romanticism in the UK. Historian Thomas Carolina and British pre-raphaelite pie represents the romantic late transition as the Victorian era culture stage. Born in 1865, William butler Yeats will also his age is called "the last of the romantic period."
In predominantly Catholic country, the development of romanticism is not like Germany and the UK to be obvious, and the development of late, more is appeared after napoleon, summer cloth more Lyon (Chateaubriand), sometimes referred to as the "father" of the French romanticism. Mainly in France, romanticism in the 19th century, especially in hot and in the benevolence DE crowe watts of painting, and Victor Hugo wrote the script, poems, novels, such as les miserables, stendhal's novels are also included. The composer assou-ekotto, white liao is quite important also.
In Russia, Alexander pushkin, became a romantic idea of principal cheerleader. Mikhail lermontov is trying to study and analyze the hidden behind the romantic, in people's psychological about society and themselves, he also affected by byron. Poet mikheev, ivanovic, autumn, and important characters of the development of the romantic movement in Russia, and is affected by the strong German romanticism.
Romantic people's national consciousness awakening for many central Europe plays a great role, let them feel the lack of the plight of the nation state, especially in Poland. Since rebel movement was Nicholas I has been lost to Poland after troops to quell sovereignty, and through the romantic poets and painters to introduce ancient myths, tradition and custom, those people began to set their own cultural independence from dominate the culture. artism, nationalism, revolution and armed rebellion have become quite common phenomenon in this period. Adam dense, kay also is one of the most outstanding romantic poet in this period, his romantic described Poland as the saviour of the world, just like Jesus Christ to save the humanity in general.
In the United States, the earliest gothic romantic in Washington Irving (Washington Irving) of "sleepy valley legend" (1819), a novel emerged, emphasis on simple hero image creation, and with a strong background to the frontier with exotic color people described as "noble savage", this also is similar to the philosophy of jean - Jacques Rousseau, Owen also with romantic prose and travels in the impression. POE fiction thriller style and his folk poetry in France exert influence even higher than in the United States, and the real romantic novel style will mature American writer, is Nathaniel hawthorne's works. Later the artentalist (artentalism) writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo art is also hold some from the influence of romanticism, walt Whitman is including romantic realism. But in the 1880 s, psychological and social realism began to compete and romanticism, written by American writer always retain some romantic poetry style until 1920. Dickinson wrote poems (in her lifetime) few people pay attention to and Herman Melville's novel moby dick can be d are representatives of the American romantic literature, or is the transformation of the romantic movement. Like other places (UK, Germany, France), American literature romanticism also brought on the visual arts of the romantic movement, particularly often in virgin zone such as the Hudson River to describe subjects.
The UK is one of the earliest countries of romantic literature. The British romanticism writer discontent in the development of the capitalist urban civilization, cynical, he prowled the natural tendency. In mid and late 18th century poet Robert burns (1759-1796) and William Blake (1757-1827) was a art of the romantic literature, their style and language in English poetry made a lot of valuable attempts. Burns get nourishment from the Scottish folk songs, the poems of the Scottish dialect is good at lyrical and irony, language; Blake's "songs of innocence and songs of experience, symbolism and mystery, in the 20th century, affect the whole of the modern English poetry.
However, the first batch of British romanticism true master is called "lake school" of the three poets. William Wordsworth (1770-1850) is the highest achievement of the lake poets, he and his "lake school" another poet Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834) published the lyrical ballads, become a cornerstone of British romantic literature. Most centralized collection of poetry to Wordsworth, and Coleridge's kubla "ancient after singing" and "kubla khan" income, also is full of illusion and its image. However, Wordsworth's most important work during this period is a long poem "introduction". Southey of extremely rich ancient poetry, and the secular. Lake school three poets are holed up in the northwest lake area, the memory of the middle ages and patriarchal clan of rural life, is the representative of the romantic literature in the qing li wen wan.
George byron and Shelley (1788-1788) (1792-1822) two poets to British romantic literature into the peak. They and the lake poets in their works more fighting consciousness and political tendency. Shelley's masterpiece "Prometheus unbound" through the myth about the sufferings of the oppressed people and the tyrant's inevitable end, predicted that the revolution will come. His short poem ode to the west wind ", "to a skylark" and so on rhyme long, more "if winter comes, can spring be far behind?" Such a sentence handed down from ancient times. Byron is the first half of the 19th century's most famous romantic poet, he travelled all his life, his poetry is full of exotic. Masterpiece don Juan is the capitalist system in a parade, the depth of bone marrow thought-provoking. In Europe, byron became a cultural phenomenon. People place the loneliness, solemn and stirring, advocating personal style against the romantic image of the known as the "byronic hero". Byron old age in Greece's national liberation movement, and eventually died of typhoid fever in Greece the battlefield.
The representative figure of British romantic literature also includes John Keats (1795-1821). His writing career is only five years, but wrote the famous lyric "ode to the nightingale" and "ode to the ancient Greek urn, indulge in its pastoral beauty of the ancient world. Walter Scott (1771-1823) is given priority to with fiction, its representative work "ivanhoe" is set in 12 th-century Britain, greenwood hero Robin Hood's image, he is the founder of historical novels in Europe.
Germany is the birthplace of the romantic thoughts. Of political and economic backwardness, the bourgeoisie of the weak and the prevalence of idealist philosophy, determines the German early romanticism has strong mysticism and religious color. Schlegel brothers laid the foundation of ideological trend of German romanticism art, their positions by the Athena temple, liberation of personality and art paper without a teleological romantic ideas. Under the influence of the brothers schlegel, Germany emerged the carnot Wallis (1772-1801), g (1773-1853), a group of early romantic poet. Mr Wallis's night carol singing "sacred, inexpressible, mysterious" night, and praise the wonderful feeling of death. Aztec is the hereafter, he "folk" three volumes, have created a new genre of fairy tale novels.
Appeared after 1805 the German "Heidelberg romantic style", is the representative of Clemens van buren tano (1778-1842) and achim, sealing, al nim (1781-1838). The hypnotic song lyrics of the former has folk flavor, rich poetry. Folk publication in co-operation with two men had set the boy's magic horn, collection includes nearly 300 years of German folk songs. Grimm Jacob (1785-1863) and William green (1786-1859), a brother is a linguist and folklore, they weave the hereafter, he children and family is called the high-quality goods in work of fairy tales in the world. art seal · YiErXing madoff (1788-1857) of the novel "a career without employing" mixed together where reality and fantasy, full of mysterious emotional appeal.
After 1809 the German romanticism to form another center in Germany. art (1777-1811) of comedy's attack broken urn, Prussia officialdom and corruption of judicial system, full of humorous satire characteristics of folk comedy. Hoffman (1776-1822) of the male cat Moore's outlook on life show a falsehood, behave like thieves and prostitutes and the bourgeois world, strange imagination and conception. Great poet Heine is also a romantic poet in his early years, then turned to realism.
Overall, the German romanticism characteristics are not obvious, the style is change. To late, gradually integrated into the strong trend of realism literature.
Victor Hugo, as a result of the French revolution twists and turns, determines the French romantic literature has more distinct political color. Francois - Rene DE Lyon summer more cloth (1768-1848) and Mrs S darfur (1766-1817) is an early on behalf of the French romanticism. The former with noble tendency, the essence of Christian revival medieval moral codes, but his work on American jungle and savannah singular scenery and the ancient ruins of lyrical color description, become romantic literature and exotic depicting the "beauty" to the ruins. His novel "Rene" and "dara o" secular love and religious contradictions are describing, la. And Mrs S darfur has democratic tendencies. Her papers to learn and spread "on Germany" dedicated to the romantic idea, spare no effort to attack the French classical tradition.
Representatives of the French romantic medium-term including Alphonse DE la Martin (1790-1869) and al fry DE pooh (1797-1863). The former is good at writing lyrics, is the art of romantic poetry in France, "meditation" scene, make use of contrast and symbolic writing style; The latter is famous for its philosophic poem, "the ancient and modern poetry" and "destiny" to promote aloof spirit of perseverance, to express the thoughts of compassion.
After 1830, Victor Hugo, became the leader of the French romantic literature, he is also a romantic literature of the west. In 1830, Hugo plays of Europe that has marks on the romantic finally overcome the classicism in France. Hugo is a rare generalist in romantic writer, in poetry, novels, drama, and other fields has a significant contribution. His novel "Notre Dame DE Paris", "93", "les miserables", etc. With the style of the epic, magnificent, is a masterpiece of romantic novels. Hugo life support republican, against the art, had fled into exile in 1851, until returned to France in 1870. In the field of poetry and drama, Hugo also high achievements. He in the largest extent, expand the French form of poetry and prose, greatly enriched the French poetry rhetoric skills, have a huge impact on later generations. Hugo's death, a total of more than 2 million people in Europe came to France to attend his state funeral.
And contemporary French romantic writer Hugo include female writer George sang (1802-1876). Her works expanded the romantic literature feminine features, especially rural women problem novels and novel. Masterpiece Kang Su love her "and" the marsh is are typical romantic novel, full of poetic and sincere emotion. Once and George sang a brief romance of young poet al fry DE MiaoSai (1810-1857) is a new force of French poetry during this period, the four nights poems with the colour like dream. Novel the confession of a century the son for the first time introducing the concept of "disease of the century" romantic novels. 's nai DE waal (1808-1855) of lyric strangeness deep, form of exquisite and profound influence on modern poetry in the 20th century. Dumas (1802-1870) created a great number of historical novel, "the three musketeers" and "the count of monte cristo" will be the development of popular novels to the limit.
Russia and eastern Europe
The Russian romantic literature is napoleon's invasion in 1812 and December 1825 following a socialist revolution. The Russian romantic literature is given priority to with poetry, rich strong fighting spirit. Zhukov, (1783-1852) played an important role in the formation of Russian romantic, is regarded as one of the first Russian lyric poet. His praises singer of the Russian army soldiers artic feats, praise Russia national great revival. Ray column's (1795-1826) founded "Polaris", promote romantic thoughts. Famous Russian realism writers such as pushkin, gogol at an early age is romantic, then turned to realism. Lermontov (1814-1841) is Russia's staunchest romantic poet, epic poem "the child monk" and "evil" with a rebellious hero of character image, to express the tyranny of revolutionary ideas. Novel contemporary hero "superfluous man" image is created for the first time, is the art of psychoanalysis novels.
In eastern Europe, the representative figure of romanticism literature is Poland's Adam, kay's (1798-1855) and Hungary petofi (1823-1849). Eastern European romantic literature is characterized by and against alien enslavement, struggle for national independence. Dense, kay's "ancestors offering" bloodbath, lashed out at the Russian invaders traitorous noble deeds. Petofi criterion with the national song "and" the freedom and love, "and other poems sing praises to fight for freedom.
The United States
Walt Whitman as the us and Europe in all kinds of different in history, culture, measured in Europe popular literary genre, the concept of the development of American literature is actually not very accurate. But as a result of American literature is a part of the whole western literature, so usually people will also be within the framework of American literature in the western literature to study.
The American romantic literature is under the influence of western European romantic literature. Half of the 19th century, the rapid development of American capitalism, national consciousness and artic enthusiasm, get rid of the bondage of British literature, attaches great importance to the spirit of creation and the pursuit of freedom artentalist fill, so American romantic literature began to flourish.
art, Ralph Waldo art (1803-1882) and Thoreau (1817-1862) is a artentalist theorist, first proposed the idea of romanticism. They emphasize human spirit action and significance of artion, think is full of spiritual nature, people should return to nature. Thoreau's art is the cornerstone of romantic literature.
The prophase is the representative figure of the romantic writers including Washington irving (1783-1859), James cooper (1789-1851) and POE. Michael Owen is called the father of American literature, in his novel, "American literature" this concept first surfaced, no longer by the constraint of English literature. Cooper is one of the founders of the United States national literature, he created the represented by the skin of socks tales of frontier saga novels, the most important one is "the last mohicans". POE advocates art to make readers get stimulus and achieve the sublimation of the soul, most of his novels, death, murder, revenge with hallucination state can be revealed and abnormal psychology, he and French poet baudelaire revered as the art of symbolism literature together.
The American romantic literature in the late by Nathaniel hawthorne (1804-1864), walt Whitman (1819-1892) and Herman Melville (1819-1891) as the representative. Hawthorne in his works "hidden evil", the excavation, the scarlet letter reflects the darkness of the Puritan colonial rule and the hypocrisy of the church and injustice, symbolism using high-tech. Whitman's life experience design, expand consumption of poetry "leaves of grass", praising the united national consciousness awakening, as the ancestor of modern American literature. Melville is the romantic novel the highest achievement in the home, is good at describing the sailing adventure and exotic, masterpiece moby-dick is one of the greatest novels in the history of American literature, "white whale" of the novel "has become a detached and hostile to human beings and is difficult to conquer the mystery of totem.
Influence of literature.
Romantic literature is one of the two mainstream western modern literature system, for the whole of the impact of western literature is undoubtedly. Vertical point of view, the romantic emphasis on creation of absolute freedom, wiped out the rule of European literary world for thousands of years of classical discipline, is in modern western literature in the history of the "Renaissance" once again. The modernist literature in the 20th century of the genre, all can be as romantic literature transformation, the result of evolution. Many modernists claim to be "romantic", visible romanticism of the close connection between literature and modernist literature.
In the social and historical background of hong kuo, no one in human history literature ideological trend and the combination of changeable social change is so close. Romantic literature is in the history of modern people to the scientific rationality and materialism of a thorough review of the dissimilation phenomenon and the settlement. Romantic toppled western capitalism the old value rationality, with strong rebellious spirit to build a new cultural pattern.
In addition, many romantic emphasis on folk songs, fairy tales, such as folk literature and collecting, to a great extent, save and carry forward the folk tradition of western literature. In Germany and the UK, collecting folk literature romanticism is start. Romantic widely capture topics from folk legends, myths, fairy tales, greatly enriched the technique of expression of literature, which laid a foundation for the prosperity of modernist literature subject.
The fine arts
In the 19th century, the bourgeois democratic revolution in painting a genre of art. This painting out of the academic and the fetters of classicism, favor artists at his imagination and creation, subject matter from real life, medieval legends and literary classics (such as Shakespeare and Dante, Goethe, byron's works), etc., have certain advantages. Representative works include the cadastral ke the raft of murdo Mr, delacroix "freedom leads the people". Warm color in a painting, the brush is bold and unrestrained, be full of moving.
The romantic philosophy foundation, is popular during this period of German classical philosophy and the utopian socialism of influenced by the enlightenment. It emphasizes the subjective, genius and inspiration; Emphasizes the freedom and liberation of human nature.
In the artistic creation, the romantic emphasized the artist's subjective creativity, show the historical interest and focus on the important events of social reality, in the miss of history at the same time show the yearning of Oriental exoticism.
On artistic expression, romantic and classical academic is completely the opposite, it against the pure rational and abstract, emphasizes the characteristics of concrete, has depicted and emotional communication; Against the stereotype and generalization, advocate personalized, depict the character's personality characteristics and mental state; Opposed to bound the artistic creation with laws of ancient art, claiming the subjective freedom is bold and unrestrained enthusiasm, make the artist's feelings are fully convey in writing; Against the carvings as modelling and too much emphasis on the sketch as the main performance means, efforts to highlight the strong contrast of light and colour saturation is tonal, with volatile composition, bold and unrestrained and smooth strokes, sometimes with a metaphor or symbol art image shaping technique, so as to express the artist's social ideal and aesthetic ideal.