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Surrealism - Far-reaching influence for the visual arts

Surrealism art
 Is at the beginning of the French literature genre, and dada produced in the same period, and far-reaching influence on the visual arts. From 1920 to 1930 and prevailed in European literature and art. Its main characteristics, is the so-called "surreal", "super sense" dream, illusion, etc as the source of artistic creation, think only this, beyond the reality of the "unconscious" can get rid of all, the most true to show the true character of the objective facts. Surrealism to the traditional view of art had a huge impact. Is often referred to as surrealism movement. Or simply the surreal.
Chinese name Surrealism foreign names surrealism [British] surrealisme. [method] sex schools of art and literature The discovery of human unconscious
Background
After the first world war in literature and art and in France
Other cultural field movement of rebellion against the traditional cultural thoughts of capitalism, its influence spread to Europe and the United States to other countries. It is not limited to the content of the literature, also involved in painting, music and other arts. It puts forward the art source, art methods, aim and other issues, as well as about the capitalist social system and people's living conditions and other social problems. Surrealist claim to them is a "spiritual revolution". Movement is by a group of young French have participated in the first world war, they saw the absurdity of war and destruction, the rationality as the core of the traditional ideal, culture and morality. Old belief lost their charm, need a new ideal instead. Surrealism is in their exploration on the road.
Surrealism paved the way for modern literature. As a literary genre, surrealism
There is not a long time, as a kind of literary thinking, as a kind of aesthetic point of view, the impact is very profound. Surrealist aim is to leave reality, return to the original, denying the role of rational, emphasize people's subconscious or unconscious activity. France's subjective idealist philosopher Bergson artionist and Austrian spirit pathology of Freud's art of "unconscious" laid the philosophy and theoretical basis of surrealism.
Surrealism art trend, reflects the first world war in Europe bourgeois youth fear of reality and frenzy in the state of mind. Attend the surrealist group of writers have Bloch east, Arthur rimbaud, zarathustra, painter al, mason, and so on. Belong to the genre of some writers, such as Louis aragorn, Paul ai lv, etc., due to the positive influence of the proletarian revolutionary movement turned and progress of the front. After the second world war, surrealism popular in the United States, the so-called "new surrealism" genre.
Surrealistic literature very much. , in 1921, he and Mr. Su, co-author of "field", is the first experimental surrealism works, first proposed the unconscious writing and writing problems automatically. But typical surrealist works are produced after 1924, as Mr Tung's novel "soluble fish 1924) and" na jia "(1928) is the representative work of surrealism. Aragorn essays published in 1926, farmers in Paris, Mr Lu, "poetry" the pain will be "the life inside of surrealism.
Dadaism, France produces a surreal, the most influential school in the art history of modern, in fact to make a clear distinction between this two schools era, is difficult. Because of its evolution process is not clear on the plastic arts. However, if so send dadaism spirit and surreal as the nature of the same, is a fallacy. Dadaism is a hotbed of surreal pie was born, but the surreal still endured a 19th century romanticism and symbolism of heritage, it also absorbed newarts. Today we talk about surrealism of s, are based on the published time of declaration of text for distinguish, unable to produce s correct conclusions on works of art. In art, the sponsor of the surrealist art movement is the two writers, actual and polly o Neil. Surreal polly Neil o a word is a poet when he is the first to use, the original is a philosophical term, originally known as the "supernatural", later used for painting. In 1924, he published the first paper declaration of surrealism, 1928 published an important thesis "the surreal
And painting "is the basis of his thought was observed in the liberation of the human imagination. Actual to surrealism is defined as: "surrealism, noun. Pure spirit, automatically attempt to use the automatic, in verbal or written, or any other way to express the real thought process. It is the record of thought, is not subject to any control of rationality, do not rely on any aesthetic or moral prejudices." Actual added: "I believe, on the surface is considered contradictory two states, is there a way to solve in the future, it is the unity of the dream and reality. It can be said to be a kind of absolute reality, also can saying is a kind of surreal." It is evident from this declaration is to pursue the unification of the dream and reality, surrealism as human as the object and the scope of the performance. Actual requires people to pay attention to in the articles that may contact literature with surrealism artists, including Matisse, the virtuous orchid, Bob, and Picasso. Actually these artists do not conform to the actual definition of surrealism by: pure psychological automatically. But he admired by another artist in May is the earliest surrealist painter. In ko from 1911 to 1915, has been living in Paris, his painting is polly o Neil's admiration, polly o Neil in 1918 wrote the script "in west Asia's breasts" as "surreal drama" subtitle, the first to use the "surreal
"This term, he ke in the base value is obviously noticed in ke of the artental spirit and the performance of the inner world.
Give the surreal sent the biggest revelation is at the university of Vienna, Austria psychiatric professor of psychology at Freud's psychoanalysis and the art of the subconscious psychology. Said on the whole, as a surrealism art movement, and Freud's psychoanalysis has very close connection. Surrealistic spirit and thought leaders he had studied medicine experience, he was reading the Freud's work, immediately appreciate between psychoanalysis and vindicate the unconscious dadaism. Spirit analysis focus on the analysis of dreams, fantasy and illusion, and daydream as a possible induction methods of artistic creation. In this and in the studies of subconscious dream world, and, naturalism is not controlled by the rational and by instinct and imagination, surreal theme, showing more real than the real world, more significant than the representation of the real world, dream world in the field of imagination.
This pie artists can give al, miro, ellens stay, Dali, mason, in ke, Kerr, nowitzki, magritte, chagall, etc. Actual in the activities of the "automatic, unconscious automatic function (Automatisme) and fantasy world mining for" creation, some are also affected by philosopher Bergson Bergson (H), value desire to break in the thoughts of the dualistic view of the universe, to establish a unified metaphysics, so their performance any dream and imagination, deformation and lines are unable to understand a lot of strange. Their art activity of free arrangement in the world of a spatio-temporal crisscross, not bound by space and time.
If, however, explained by the visual image of the actual surrealist painting, also illustrates the surrealist painting only a main style, which represented by Dali, magritte, delvaux style. This style is characterized by fine detail depicted, through after deformation of image and scene that can be recognized, to build a kind of illusion and dream. It is the source of Rousseau, chagall, sol, ke and romanticism in the 19th century art. It attempts to use Freud by definition, create a kind of consciousness and rational control of the image. But the painting process and realistic painting actually there is no difference between rational process, so this kind of style is also known as naturalism and classical surreal surrealism. Another surrealist painting is representative, miro, horse song they pursuit of unconscious of painting process, so that the image of pure subject to psychological effect on image, the end result is always full of illusion and the life form of abstract images. so
, it is also known as organic surrealism or absolute surrealism, this tendency with the dada and some futurists in accidental opportunity and automatism testing are linked.
Since the actual development in 1924 after the declaration, in June 1925 in Paris, held the first surrealist painting, participants including Picasso, al and Cleveland, they are obviously not real surrealist painter, only ernst in his collage of dadaism experimenting with the tendency of surrealism works for the first time. The surrealist art gallery surrealist group in 1926, 1936 and 1947, they successively held important exhibition in London and Paris. Once popular European surrealism boom is gradually after in the 30 s, but this movement and disappear at the end of and still has a certain influence in the second world war. Because a lot of the painter before world war ii from Paris to America, so surreal painting effects from Europe to the new world. In addition, the influence to the drama, stage decoration, photography, film, architecture, sculpture and other art fields.
Surrealism is committed to explore the prior level of human experience, tries to break through the logical and real view of reality, try to reality concept and instinct, unconscious and knead the experience of the dream, in order to show the real scene of an absolute or artent. Surrealism movement with its fancy style full of fantasy color and exotic, had important influence on aesthetics in the 20th century.
The development course
Preparation period
Dada: during the first world war the modernist literary genre, is also called the early surrealism. Leader is a romanian terrance don zarathustra.
In 1913, initially started with painting, art put the a bike saddle horse on a stool. Be regarded as the art of dada. In 1919, art in leonardo Da Vinci painting "Mona Lisa" printed on added a moustache and renamed as the Mona Lisa, so "L.H.O.O.Q" was born.
In 1916, many intellectuals are reluctant to enter the "bloody" and BiJu Switzerland, Zurich, a German writer Bauer in organized a "voltaire small hotel" club. On February 8, romanian zarathustra a paper knife inserted into the German and French dictionaries, and then in the random point refers to the page with the title of "Dada" as a genre, Dada, and baby talk, which means "horse". Use it as the banner of cultural activities, there is no any meaning, also exactly reflect their view of the world: everything is accidental and agnosticism, for no reason, no sense.
Zarathustra declaration to the definition of dada "freedom: dada, dada, dada, a twitch of cries of pain, all the contrary, contradictory, strange and illogical things intertwined, this is the life". "Let everyone Shouting: have a devastating, negative great work to do. Clear, sweeping." - nihilism, art. Dada - undermining the spirit of everything, no everything, even including dada itself.
France: Breton, Mr. Su, aragorn billed as "the three musketeers", the 1919  3 months in Paris started a magazine called "literature", named literature is a kind of irony, the aim is against all literary tradition. In the same year began to contact dada. Come to Paris in 1920, zarathustra formed dada group in France, all three people to join. Throw away "dada" announced in 1922.
The declaration of
(1924-1929),
In 1924 published the first piece of the declaration of surrealism Breton. Headed by Breton, aragorn, Mr. Lu and Mr. Su huge tide, unlike dada, they have a art, have goals, have more successful works.
In the same year in Paris he Neil street no. 15, set up a permanent establishment "surrealism research office", put forward to life itself as raw materials, welcome all the pursuit of innovation, and real life is not harmonious.
In the same year also founded the mouthpiece of the journal surrealism revolution, in the eyes of society is "the world's most shameless magazine". Published ten years.
Leaflets, brochure, a dead body, ironic method, Anatole had just died: "follow France, Anatole, are some of the slave people. Let's bury deceit, traditionalism, artism, opportunism, skepticism, realism and cowardice that day as a holiday to celebrate it."
Turning to the French communist party, such as aragorn, internal divisions.
At the peak
(1929-1941),
In December 1929, the declaration of the second surrealism Breton, "purification" surrealism. Aragorn, aragorn in the Soviet union in 1930 held the second international congress of revolutionary writers, the results did not defend surrealism, lead to rupture with Breton.
To participate in the Spanish civil war.
More than a dozen international exhibition surrealism.
A lot of work.
Was interrupted by world war ii.
The postwar period
(1946-1969),
In 1947, called Paris Breton international exposition, surrealism rally.
An extension phenomenon, for the world to all areas.
Breton's death in 1966, jean kjus earned another replacement, dissolved in 1969.
Surrealist artist mainly Rousseau (H.T.R ousseau), miro (Joan miro), Salvador Dali (purportedley), ernst (m.e RNST), Rene magritte, r.m agritte), Pablo ruiz, Picasso (Pablo Picasso was) and others. Millo (Joan Miro, 1893-1983), the creation of the presentation is intended to disrupt the normal order of consciousness, under the guidance of artion type, use a similar to the abstract language to express the heart of induction off the cuff. So there will be a symbol of symbols in its work and the simplified image, make the works with a sense of freedom of abstract, there are also children's innocence, is considered by people "the children's art, primitive art, folk art, as a whole The master ". His human nature, animals, and some symbolic objects, use simple line, clean and bright color, he seems to use innocent eyes see the world, but to the chaos of the world from time to time issued a sarcastic smile. Painting works. The main works such as the Dutch household indoor. Salvador Dali (1904-1989) purportedley, compared with miro, he used instead of the technique of expression. Dali think artists will subconscious image accurate record, so he used "figurative", illusion, accurately copy the abnormal logical thinking all the irrelevant things together, make the picture full of drama, bring new visual and psychological shock. What's more, he put the passion inspired by the process of creation into a liquid, and the process is called "critical way of paranoia," is his inner world and Christmas, weird to join or alternative external objective world, commonly used decomposition, overlapping, comprehensive, crisscross way to reflect the subconscious process. Some of his works contains religious mystery and sex factors. To work to the bird threw stones, "eternal memories", feeling of civil war, etc.
literature
Representative of surrealism
Surrealism representative
Surrealistic literature claims that in the real world, there is a so-called "the other shore 'world, and the unconscious or subconscious world, a world after more real than the previous world. Emphasize poet obey the call of the subconscious mind, write a dream, illusion, the coincidence of things, advocates the method of automatic writing, record and moment of the subconscious, the dream to achieve the automatic reaction of" pure spirit ". Work magic pursuit, peculiar artistic effect, full of unexpected images, some innovative works of imaginative, but most of the arcane, lack of logic, language standardization.
Negative realism and surrealism traditional novels, hostile moral tradition, all think it is the root of mediocrity, hatred, and the novel has become the art of the literature, because it meet the requirements for the reader to reflect life in logical pursuit. It to break through it all, the pursuit of "pure spirit automatic reaction, through this kind of reaction, in oral, written, or any other form to express thinking of practical function. It is not affected by reason of any supervision, does not consider the consequences of any aesthetic or moral, record the thinking". Surrealist in cafes, cinemas and other public places to find, collect the mind of the original state, and on this basis, the work is published in 1928, Breton's novel "the na jia". After the end of the 20 s, sports division happens inside. Breton in 1930 published the declaration of the surrealism, the principle of repeated movement: the absoluteness of revolt, unbelieving thoroughness and destructive of the rules and regulations. Since movement at a low ebb, almost only cuny le east still in insist, in exile in the United States during the second world war, he never stop this propaganda. After Bob le east back to France in 1946, continue to the magazine, an exhibition of works of works, address broadcast, unleashing a wave of surrealist movement, influence spread to Europe and the United States in many countries, but the momentum has been far less than 20 s.
Surrealism exist for a long time, this genre attractive and vitality, many of the modernist school are influenced by the art and development.
The movie
Surrealist film (surrealist film) apply literary creation method of surrealism in the genre of films. Took their cue from the creation principle for advocates of Andre - Tony east emphasizes the importance of the dream and reality of irrational behavior, not harmonious image of column emotional strength and persistent pursuit of personal pleasure. Had become the main tendency of 20 s French avant-garde movies, and later became the important wing experimental film and art. In the field of for commercial distribution feature, surrealism does not constitute a separate genre, it is only in the influence of film of individual lens or a paragraph. Freddy adu - the surrealism in the movie is about the base for the research of the typical works.
20 s, the French avant-garde movies people find movie camera nature and montage of column technique makes it the ideal performance means surrealism. This view has always been popular among the traditional film makers, and had been put into practice. Surrealistic film openly oppose narrative.
Usually think, drucker shells and monks is the first surrealist film, but more attention is Louis. Mr Manuel's "a anda lu dog" and "golden age", the former is a spiritual predicament of tramp a series of dreams while the latter is a Freud's doctrine of lust and love. Sex and orgasm, violence and blasphemy, and weird sense of humor, surrealistic film is used to compete with traditional film form. Film the real goal is to want to use free film form, to inspire potential audience the impulse of the heart most deep place. Mr Manuel has claimed a anda lu dog is warmly call "" to the murder. Researchers agree that western films, the influence of surrealism in steadfastly and still from time to time, after shooting a feature film appeared in his works, in the experimental film and art, the representative figure of surrealist tendency was the United States and the DE and Kenneth Angle, in the field of feature films, western movie researchers tend to see the potential of abnormal psychology, sexual impulse, such as the irrational behavior description to a surrealism's performance in a feature film. As a result, a series of films like Hitchcock: "Edward doctor" (1945), "vertigo" (1958), "north by northwest" (1959), "psychopaths" (1962) and "flock" (1963), Max frantic comedies, three brothers and Samuel fuller, art von stearns fort and others some of the film, were elucidated in feature a typical example of the influence of surrealism.
color
If realistic processing color is on the basis of real strive to bring into play the function of color expression, so surreal processing is emphasized the use of subjective color, but for the ideographic function of color, no longer consider the authenticity of color processing, surrealism originated in the modernist school of western movies. Known as the founder of the modernist school of western films famous Italian director antonioni shot in his film "red desert", the red, yellow and blue is of important meaning color, and his red and yellow paint factory workshop, the tree also painted red. Red and yellow in the west is a symbol of turmoil and fear, the environment in the composition of the red and yellow, a metaphor of modern industrial civilization is destroying the human. Yellow smoke from chimney is toxic. The heroine Julia's living room is painted blue, suggests that mental illness - Julia to see the world is cool ruthless, she could not communicate with the outside world and family, her spirit world has collapsed. Green is a symbol of the color of life, green is seldom seen in the film, suggested by modern industrial pollution of the modern world all of life may be the threat, even can't survive. The colour of the film processing is surreal, colour is no longer the real reappearance of natural scenery, but the colours according to the author's subjective intention as an independent means of expression.
clothing
Martin (Richard Martin) in the book "fashion and surrealism", on the process of fashion and surrealism marriage as its description. In 1983, 1984, surrealist fashion won the Renaissance; In 1985 by lagerfeld completed cap "cake" and "happiness ridge cap". Today, the design of surrealist fashion and design. The study found that the surrealist painter of the most attention is the human body and its parts. Fashion is human performance, it's just fashion cover the body a little more. As a cover body art fashion, designers looking for ways to reproduce the beauty of human body. Saint Laurent introduced the golden breastplate expressed successfully striking effect of the body. In fact, from the Angle of psychology, the adornment of the female breast as a result, it emphasizes the hidden inside adornment. Suggested by some, of course, also can show the body. Carter, 1984 ba jie in the trench coat embroidered with a highly suggestive in French: "I didn't wear pants. In the eyes of the surrealist designer, this perhaps is to fashion the most precise definition. It is a bit too much, though, as usual. It does, however, revealed the connotation of surrealist fashion. Admittedly, rich means of fashion, surrealism pornography ingredients are everywhere. We also found that the designer is work in phase ACTS the role of surrealism. The reason is, the stage as a neck - hat, easy to become the visual center of the people.
Although fashion and surrealism art has similarities, but its itself in realism art. Fashion of super realism style appeared mainly as a graphic arts fashion cater to the fashion business. Because through advertising, newspapers, art and photography, make spirit popular surrealism. Among them, the designers and fashion critic urged also played a key role.
photography
Surrealism photography in the 1930 s, influenced by the literary trend and surrealist painting surrealism. Surrealism today has become history, especially in China, surrealism photography has not produced had already died, even can appear, but also is "imitation surrealism photography" or "pseudo surrealism photography", in spite of this, as an important part in the history of photography, is necessary to understand it.
Surrealism photography is very difficult to explain in words, because this kind of work experience is not real record, used to everyone's mutual experience to comment on a surrealism photography is a very difficult thing, also can only from its syntax and advocated to surrealism photography may be far-fetched to understand.
Surrealism photography since not to record reality as own duty, so the physical nature of the work nor are they in original intention in the objective world, each object is as a kind of visual symbols and images appear, surrealism photography household to make these symbols for "sentence" image, and can this sentence "image" is very difficult to translate into "" language sentence, this sentence also tend to contain a kind of mood, a wisp of poetry, some emotional, and some political implications, the implied meaning is surreal artistic charm.
Surrealism stems from dada pro: knowledge to change the world, eliminate war and disease, let freedom ring, the original love and heart to be spontaneous and to explain the eternal dreams, in fact, as early as 1966 with surrealism ender, brayton died away, after "surrealism" be abused and misused repeatedly, has been dubbed the "new" surrealism and the name of "new" cubism, really scary.
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