The art of the Renaissance Period
The art of the Renaissance
1 content abstract
2 the creation background
3 the sculpture
5 fashion and furniture
Renaissance is devoted to the imitation of the culture of ancient Chinese oil painting art form. As said many of the various periods in the history of cultural thinking, common name, point out the concept of the Renaissance also is only roughly the nature of this period, because it does not involve the revival of the ancient culture. It more relevant to the 19th century, in the 19th century is through a simple imitation produced a lot of mediocre. Although concern with love and respect for the Renaissance classical era, think it is a model and example, but it's always the pursuit of the spirit but not the form, is rather than thought. In this regard, the Renaissance is not with absolute contradiction in the middle ages, at the end of the day, the Charlemagne had the idea of the Renaissance Rome western cultural history. He's about the idea of a "German peoples of the holy Roman empire", in the centuries constitutes the ideological basis of German empire.
In the end, the birthplace of the Renaissance Italy, never lost contact with its classical culture history. Italian Roman architecture has a harmonious proportion and sober restraint, on the stereo modelling is different from the north the heavy, large architectural style, gothic architecture here is still not widely understood, or even rejected. In Italy, the Renaissance occurred is not fierce with a revolution, it is simply to revive what has long been considered to be surrendered and transfer.
If we are convinced that today as the Renaissance and started a art, that we live in this era today, so we are is the full value of a, jacobs booker hart, praise for "found with people of the world", a major event.
Discovered the world, said this is not only geographically expanded the understanding of the world, such as Marco Polo and Christopher Columbus), and refers to a kind of accurate and system science has early budding, as leonardo Da Vinci, Nicholas Copernicus and alberti committed to it. And found the man is an independent individual, this is a kind of don't admit personal development possibility the result of the collapse of the social system of decline. arts in the city of class, and those who received highly independent small warlord, constitutes a fertile breeding ground for cultivating personality generated. Wealthy businessman broke through the traditional monopoly of education, church, they established a secular library humanism university was established. For set up the prestige and social reasons, sometimes for pure artistic interest, in the city and guilds and every leud territory has launched an unprecedented sponsorship and activities to promote the development of art, the artist anonymous way to get rid of the craftsman, and gives the artist ingenuity of individual consciousness. Before he's just some sort of authority of the will, a phased is now seeking new forms, for his creation to his era new experience of social science and natural science. As a result, the status of the modelling art has become a science, as alberti said, it's in math and science have a common basis. From this perspective, grasp the rules of the central perspective, illustrates a general effectively for almost five hundred years the proportion of art. With scientific precision for natural observation, contributed to this in plastic arts from symbol to mimic a decisive shift. In the aspect of construction, and through the southern division, overcome the mysterious gothic architecture space, got a feeling and logically can grasp the building codes.
The creation background
In Italy, early Renaissance also known as the "fifteenth century". This period not only overcome the pointed arch of gothic architecture, and explicitly denied gothic space dynamic, is conducive to a strong mutual equilibrium by space harmonious. This will work in the early stages of the brunelleschi was very clear - the eastern end of the cathedral of Florence. It to the 14th century gothic long hall hall: added a perfect circle three equally in the shape of a semicircle roof into the center of the cross intersections huge, there by 92 - meter - high dome. Despite the dome is still the gothic, frame on the eight arch rib, the scheme is a kind of architectural art of the Renaissance of the whole arts are a model of good method.
In the design of the church of SAN lorenzo brunelleschi old in the vestry, effectively implement the idea for the first time. On the square bottom, standing up to separate Corinthian pilaster and the wall of the triangle frontispiece. In a horizontal direction there is a floor on the width between the waist line, and the relative vertical movement. Semicircle arch and arch shoulder transition to cross the arch dome, constitutes a half sphere solid geometry. Wall separating out all forms, such as round, round window, carving and rectangular have semicircle arch niche, niche and impression that static harmony, art after the whole building is a very distinctive.
Alberti directly linked to the experience of brunelleschi, trying to come up from art and science to consolidate his art in the open road. He used a art production tool for measuring the Roman architecture, also studied the augustus age was discovered in 1415 architect vitruvius writing textbooks, and then wrote his about Renaissance architectural art teaching architecture ten book, and use just the printing craft was widely spread throughout the world. He also according to the Roman artal arch model design for the front of the church of SAN andres mantua. Four post the roof supported by heavy structure and triangular wall, through several floors, so that the building combined into a majestic whole. Separated into small squares of barrel ceiling located above the big door, covers and inside the church hall, make the spacious hall appears stable and complete. At the junction and a dome, its task is to stop the longitudinal movement, to make it stable. But, here in SAN andres has showed a conflict, the Renaissance architects racked his brain, perfect the rotunda is conform to the pursuit of the ideal of harmonious and unified appearance at the time, but not how to meet the needs of the liturgy practical, because cannot alter with each other of the hall. St.peter's in Rome that twists and turns on the architectural history of change, the problem is quite obvious.
Bramante design on a floor plan of the Greek cross is a nice central hall, cross intersections is a huge dome, a few hall after the end is the house of the same length. In the cross Angle between each arm is square small hall, with smaller domes. Plan shows the individual hall together together, like medieval love, does not conform to the Renaissance pursuit space structure symmetry. After the death of bramante, Raphael succession engineering leadership, rules extend shaft, making plan and show the shape of a Latin cross. In 1547, st Peter's engineering under the 72 - year - old Michelangelo is responsible, and he restored bramante central scheme. But he did not adopt the principle of the hall together, expand the central dome, let those smaller dome is only a supplementary role of the central dome. Michelangelo has not been able to witness his leadership of the greatest building project completion. After his death, Carl lockheed Martin madail to central hall three beams, so as to realize the Raphael's "a combined with round the hall long hall" idea.
Michelangelo may be said to be the central hall of the dome the embodiment of the idea of the perfect, at the same time, it also with rich architectural sculpture modelling indicates the direction of the future. In the dome of the circle area, stands in pairs according to the ancient modeling idea the Corinthian columns, the roof supporting the distinctive architecture. In forward out of the cylinder between attachment is rectangular Windows, window covered with alternating segment and the gable of the triangle. Is divided into 16 parts of dome rely on arch rib to remain stable, the arch rib and gothic structure is different, be moved outward. This means that the dome shell is not covered in the arch rib on the shelf, but hang in the arch rib frame from below. In this way, can be in full uniform across the ceiling into square shape, make the dome is a unified whole. It is a continuation of the layout design, Michelangelo to realized his a large single type church hall.
Renaissance people aware of the significance of his personality, and strive to in the private sector as the power of the individual to prove for him. So in this period, great secular first and religious buildings. Secular building in the middle ages, was borrowed from religious architecture style, now it has developed its own unique style, in order to show to the world people have been out of the universal power of the church.
Then, by inornate home to produce the luxurious mansion. Ancient residence cube shape is made by the inner court and in the light of the colonnade type house with a pavilion. Front has a strong appearance, slightly divided with convex rough cut stone, wall act the role of the line shows the rigorous level. The building is composed of three large and overlapping floors. Alberti Lu Che to residence in his design, with vertical post as opposed to a horizontal line decoration, so as to enrich the positive. A rectangle, was formed in this way, to mark the semicircle arch window clear boundaries. While post just beautiful decoration, not the supporting role. Michelangelo design house of cultural relics, with great post to overcome the various of floor space, they constantly extends to the thick roof cornices there. Wall separated by large Windows, so there will be no support task. In the sixteenth century, in Venice, a third type of positive came into being.
Mulberry sorvino design like Roman palace relics of st. mark's library, and only two floors, but the hole in the wall here have improved again, make a set and a half columns became the only bearing components. So, Florence type residence behemoth evolved into Venetian palace totally positive, open and lively for late baroque palaces have pointed out the direction of the building.
Located in the wall outside the villa put forward another mundane tasks. Para brother Mr Lawton of villa design adopted the idea of the central hall, a Greek cross, its open for the end of each arm of the stairs, four of the same type temple gables connected square building and there are four large hall and four small hall, surrounded by a dome of the rotunda. The result is a temple of places of building, make the person from the appearance to a comprehensive understanding of its flat structure, according to the idea completely reach the ideal perfect strict symmetry.
In the gothic period, the sculpture through free movement and the new development of psychological expression, have found a new means of press close to the realism of life. But, at the time of the sculpture is still serve to clarify the relationship between the artental, and Renaissance sculptor is set about from the aspects of earthly beauty and really to show people. They inspired by ancient model, creating a rich stereo feeling and the earthly firm faith of sculpture. Gothic images shows that the people aspire to the perfection of the kingdom, and the Renaissance shows in the life of the perfect image of the kingdom of heaven. Therefore, donoghue too let him shaped like a real person of the same size as the David like naked, and in the past only Adam and eve, and tortured and killed in nailed to the cross and the SAN Sebastian and Leon can so. David also no longer is the hero in the old testament story, but a handsome young man, only wearing a hat and fiorentina looked at the enemy's head with casual and elegant attitude. Here is a new image, he is very confident, not be restricted by the customs, like to pose supremacists. Andriy wei tommaso rocchi the "commander kore Onions" riding as also showed the same spirit. The army commander in chief of the gestures and expressions are shows a kind of just hate unscrupulous, he how to treat a hypothetical imperious motion environment, how to force his horse obedient to his violence. This is not only to raise himself, and characters of the lines of force upon him, rise to the strong degree. This perhaps is the Renaissance of the most compelling image, he saw himself as a controlled by him the center of the world, the freedom of personality is the highest goal.
The Renaissance is an individual generalization of idealism to realism in the 15th century. Michelangelo shape more than five meters high "David" like a deep impression to the person, is no longer rely on families, Leo, like that of passionate intensity, or by the dominating careless like that, too, David, but with the help of his virile beauty of image. Michelangelo also to show the image of the couple's naked, but strong muscles, especially the hands of a strong, is no longer for a goal, but through the relaxation of tension and games to the manifestation of mental and physical harmony with each other.
Development to the end of the Renaissance style, sculpture in the form of lost integrity. And the late gothic similar situation, the image of people and become the carrier of psychological expression. S-shaped line corresponding with gothic style, all at once there was like the sort of like a snake circling up group, shows the strong desire for the religious reform movement, eager to get salvation, is eager to get rid of the bondage of the world. Giovanni, ZhanBoLuo California sabin woman robbed, demonstrated the unique to the contour line technician upward movement, the increased from lying on the ground of a man's thigh and upper body, to capture the distorted body, twist to above that female beautiful. The action of acrobatics and effective surface reflects light, it was later to imitate the style characteristics of baroque sculpture.
Renaissance have visible earthly world, in the early Renaissance paintings characterized by a strong realism. With the help of the brunelleschi found linear perspective, to get the real picture stereo feeling; By means of accurate human image, the image of people now to the volume; Close observation of the natural world various phenomena of faithful representation. In the realism of the portrait, finally got the proof of him as an individual. In filippo libby is "the virgin and child", forest scenery become supernatural romantic and enjoyable scenery, flowers, forest cover is all rosy, lying naked baby Jesus. Libby in Italy the first personified the Madonna's subject matter - the virgin Mary is a beautiful young woman, and Jesus Christ is a baby sucking his thumb.
Human nature in the Renaissance, the realism of nature of press close to the phenomenon of development has become an ideal world. By symmetry, warm color, through the pyramid composition has an axis of symmetry, through the scene and the characters of closely integrated, Raphael arted the full and harmonious picture structure, themes and forms of arts from belong to a beautiful eternal laws. Also in his paintings of leonardo Da Vinci in the Santa ana and the virgin and child adopted triangular composition, a mysterious movement from the face from the limbs also produce his characters together. However, entirely confined to groups like the motion. Like Raphael, scenery is no longer a vast glass type, but a purely for foil painting atmosphere set. This color perspective (color with distance increases increasingly fuzzy) and the Netherlands have found air perspective (color as distance increases and becomes more blue), and with his famous by leonardo Da Vinci fade method to complement the: profile is no longer a solid line, but the "smoke" transition soft.
Since the middle of the 16th century, Italian style in an exciting and sometimes scary to treat this kind of dramatic idealism, to adapt to the changed after the reformation of the ideological and political situation. In tintoretto painting "the hijacked st. mark's body," the floor of the distance between the longitudinal seams and arcade extreme arrangement, create an excessive space interval, like the colour of the dark light and dark, giving the picture a dangerous atmosphere. El greco paintings of Toledo scenery is completely not depict of reality. Cool color harmonic fragmented color piece, produce a trembling under the god of lightning mirage to earthly hell. Next to the cathedral and the fort, illuminated the top of the hill stands a mountain, just like a new golgotha.
In the field of architecture and sculpture in the northern part of the European contribution to the Renaissance art is not much, but in painting has created a unique form of expression. In the art, at the beginning of the early Netherlands people (such as van love and wei deng) found a way to the road of realism, even the italians also attaches great importance to. Linear perspective but in the late 15th century Italian art activities impact on the area north of the Alps. In MeiM spirit painting in the sight of the temple, the gothic building let a person see the painter has been familiar with the Italian people create the rules of linear perspective. Screen characters also does not have individual character characteristic, they are typical of the ideal, just like the modelling of the late gothic art. In Conrad's painting "the cross of Christ," between characters and images have a fairly similar. In the grassland, mountains, lakes and shine a light in the distance the sky before the magnificent scenery scenery, painful cross group, is the mood seems they no causal relationship with the surrounding environment. Intense color of clothes and scenic soft and harmony tonal show real contradictions.
Until the durer era of life, the modelling of northern Europe to get rid of the bondage of the traditional gothic art. Durer himself thinks, with the Italian painting and painting, the discussion of the Netherlands is influenced by the humanitarian, before he reached the realism. In his "self-portrait" the look of that kind of criticism, is the analysis of its own; He familiar scenery in the Alps, with its topography of accurate at the time is amazing.
Finally, little Hans worship hall for real-world reliably depict people achieve a kind of independence of art, in order to gain the position of an independent type. Durer in his work pay more attention to grasp objects of psychological expression, and worship hall because, unlike durer, the distance from the specific to observe his model. He mostly in the form of painting their faces three-quarters part, by depicting gorgeous clothes and jewelry to express the character's appearance. Later, British social school is to worship hall for the representative's painting style.
Fashion and furniture
Italian Renaissance fashion is only as clear as the art and science, expounds the new focus on the world's survival consciousness. In this period for countries and cities have autonomy, without the command of the royal society, therefore, fashion also presents a lot of special style. Men imitate the Burgundy region of France leggings, wear tights of elastic fabric. Shirt on the collar and sleeves seem to be very smart. In addition to simple sleeves like luxury sleeves, different color or various color, decorative lantern sleeve cuff and cut sleeve, etc. As coat coat type, length is differ, there can be a true sleeve and sleeve, can also be no sleeves.
Women's clothing, has been developed from gothic that stretch and natural slim shape, evolved into thick cloth or luxurious velvet large pleated skirt. The Renaissance stage, fashion is bulky, uncomfortable and bloated, cloth more thick is more elegant. Girth seam was very narrow, in order to highlight the shape and wear thin metal liner bodice. Clothes often opens upwards into a wide flat collar. At that time it was sympathetic when it comes to this kind of fashion, said: "the body is terribly tight hoop, ladies like martyrs for the faith and dedication, have to bear the same pain out of vanity."
Style socialist period of fashion show a new self limit will, because the individualism of the Renaissance has finally showed that is the wrong way. Men wear a tight jacket, almost geometrical clipping style, stiff collar makes head lost their freedom to move. Women's clothing too stiff. Bodice force body tight in a conical tip downwards, wide skirts with the aid of bustle and appears as a stable bell.
Renaissance furniture is consistent with the construction at that time, large and bulky. Novel is that ancient subject and borrowing from stone building decoration, such as capital, triangle, arch wall, wall post with grooves, semicircle arch and niche with shell design. In ancient times the common marquetry then in vogue. The furniture of the late 16th century with the characteristics of the "style", that is to say, do not emphasize function, so that more decorative. The top of the cupboard, behind the door of cupboard of semicircle arch are only a few narrow framework, under the cupboard door is a small drawer. All sorts of adornment style chair, seems not to sit, but specially for people to watch. Spain's islamic art that complex entanglement of Arab adornment style, evolved into pure surface design of Moorish decorative pattern, also contain the characteristics of the style. The decoration on travel bed as ivory, covers all the surface. That opposition effect is characteristic of that period. After damaging era of individualism, the furniture in the service of a managed to clearly within the scope of the etiquette to seek new social support.
The Renaissance music originated in the 14th century Italy and France polyphonic music get "new art" of the development of The Times, the Italian f. orchid Denny and French military become the art of the Renaissance music composers. In the 15th century Netherlands music theorists j. tinker torres in the preface of the book balance of the earliest proposed music the concept of "Renaissance". In the 16th century the concept system in this paper. The Italian music theorists g. Mr. Lino according to contemporary art historian watts Sally's point of view, medieval music art criticism at the same time, the ancient music art portrayed as "the peak of perfection". This time many of the papers on the tendency of worship of ancient music is very obvious, but did not lead to blind adherence to the authority of classical music. The ancient music art of music and poetry, as the late 16th century to early 17th century opera production, provides a rational basis.
Spirit of the Renaissance in the music performance, and directly inspired by classical works of literature, painting and sculpture, compared to more slowly. Musicians are still to be trained in the church, and in the service of the church or court. But the value of the secular music has been recognized. Music is no longer just as accessory of religious ceremonies, it is also an independent art.