Cubism art is a movement of western modern art history and genres
Cubism (Cubism) is a movement of western modern art history and genres, as Cubism, began in France in 1908. Cubist artists pursue fracture, parsing, recombination, in the form of form separate images - with many combinations of fragmentation patterns for artists to show target. Artists in the perspective of many to describe object, put it in the same picture, to express the most complete image object. Objects of every Angle staggered overlapping put caused many parallel and perpendicular to the line Angle, scattered shadows make the cubist picture without the traditional western painting the perspective of three dimensional space illusion. Interaction with background with the picture of the theme, let cubist picture to create the painting characteristics of a two-dimensional space.
Chinese name Cubism foreign names Cubism release righteousness Modern western history of art movement and genres And cubism start time in 1906
In Paris, France Montmartre district Georges Braque Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso Picasso was established.
They met in 1907, until the first world war broke out in 1914, two people have been working very closely together.
The emergence of the name contains random cubism.
In 1908, in his black Weller gallery works, "Mr Stark's house", critics l. piston columns in the journal. Gil blas commented: "Mr Will restore everything to the black... become cube." The style name.
Cubism creation is Picasso and braque. One of Picasso's painting "and wei farm girl" (1907), is considered to be the first to contain the factors of cubism.
Western modern art, is developed from the early twentieth century western countries some schools in modern art, fauvism, cubism, futurism, dadaism, expressionist, surrealism, abstract expressionism, pop art. The word "modern" is and some new, unconventional, artistic thinking of the different from the past together; Modern art is different from the previous traditional art, also does not include the various modern realism genre, it and modern western art is not the same concept, in which it is only a place. The emergence of the modernist school of western art has its political, economic, cultural, philosophical history origin, is closely connected with the process of modern western society. New technology revolution, the social structure and people's thinking, consciousness of value idea, the change of the relationship of the people, and so on, photography technology matures, represented by Japanese prints of the Oriental art and the introduction of African art, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, such as people's philosophy and the influence of Freud's psychology and the contradictions and defects of western realistic society and promote the formation of modern art.
The modernism art has played an important role in development of modern industry and science and technology. Modernist artists' psychology and attitude to modern science and mechanical civilization is complicated. In the practice of some artists (such as cubism, futurism and constructivism), trying to reflect the profound change of society, and in most of the artist's work, take the attitude of avoidance and detachment of industrial civilization. Their value of industrial society of human nature, mechanical appreciation. But it does not mean that the mainstream of the modernist art in contrast to the process of industrial society. In fact, industry, science and technology civilization dramatically changing the face of the modern society, from the spiritual vigorously promoted the rapid changes of modern art.
The earliest modernist art from Kant's artental idealism armory absorbing nutrients, and trend of modern philosophy, especially Nietzsche, Freud, Bergson, jung such as philosophy, psychology, strong man. Nietzsche's art, not only to the German expressionist movement played a role, also for the whole produce a great impact on the modern socialist literature and art movement. Especially his denial authority, claims on the basis of the people's will, instinct of creativity, contempt for the middle class and hypocritical moral civilization, of the unconscious and instinct, pessimism, the future of the world in the various schools of art and practice of modernism, are reflected. Freud's subconsciousness art, his "the unconscious is the real actual" of the spirit, are the backbone of surrealist movement art, it is under the guidance of art of Freud, and other schools of surrealism artists who use a variety of deep mining people's spiritual world, the consequences are on the one hand, to explore new art field, on the other hand makes the artistic language to ridiculous and weird. Naturally a lot of work to create a bizarre, strange new world.
From the point of the entire European art history, modern art ideological trend starts in the impressionist before and after this period. Specifically, originated in the French impressionist painter after Cezanne, Paul gauguin and the Dutch painter Vincent van gogh. In 1905, headed by Matisse, backbone of Raman g brutalist was born in Paris. They inspired from Cezanne's works, the art form is under the influence of gauguin and van gogh, with strong colors, bold and unrestrained rough lines, twisted, exaggerated form to express the subjective feeling of the objective world. At the same time, the German expressionist arises at the historic moment, they deny the objectivity of the real world the same devotion to the artist's own subjective feeling, but they do not focus on the pure form of exploration, but the painting language as against the way of the society, the means of discontent.
Two years later, with Picasso and braque, cubism in Paris. It first object to destroy everything and dismembered, the natural form is decomposed into various geometric aspects, and then to the combination of the subjective, even to the combination of several different aspects of the same object in the same picture, so as to express the four-dimensional space. After cubism, all kinds of new art, new ideas poured into the European mainland, so futuristic in avant-garde way with Italy in 1909. They rejected the past as a means of drawing of emotional appeal and expected interest, bless ingenious form, on the subject is the negation of that which is old, think is important should be described the modern urban life, such as steel, speed, vigorous exercise, and so on. At this point, after modernism painting became the mainstream trend of painting, dadaism, surrealism, abstract expressionism, action painting, pop art, etc., are racing to the stage, the excellences for decades.
Modernism art than on the basis of realism and imitation of traditional art, has the characteristics of the symbolic, expressive and abstractness. Modernism styles itself as is tradition, in fact, it may be completely abandon the traditional. It tried to deny and exclusion is containing academic characteristics since the middle of the 19th century realism tradition. Towards historical heritage, they pay more attention to art of primitive society, Egypt and Mesopotamia art, ancient Greek art, art of the middle ages of Europe during the period of study. Since the impressionism, the western artists began to focus to China, Japan and India expressed in the language of painting, crafts, exploring the freehand brushwork in traditional Chinese. Beast, cubist artists who directly art from the African sculpture. At the same time, the art of islamic art in the Middle East and Oceania heritage, is also a modernist artists study object. Art heritage in the history of mankind above are for the modernist artists provides beneficial nutrients.
Overall, the 20th century western modernism art, adapt to the needs of the people in modern society, create a batch of works can be included in the classic culture of human, but far from all the art of modernism and postmodernism are beyond reproach, not to mention some of the work of ideas tend to be quite worth studying. Some modern art genre show the idealism art taste and decadent ideas; But more by creating modernist artists reflect their rebellious character, emphasize the value of itself, show the artist's subjective mind, also created a lot of artistic expression methods and new materials.
Cubism period in the 20th century, there are two factions.
Is a laundry ship, which is orthodox. The representatives of the factions is Picasso and braque.
Another faction is cellular, is a delegate with a group of prominent cubist painter. Cubism famous is catalyzed by these cellular painter.
Stage of development
Cubism has experienced three development period.
(1) 1907-1909 period of Cezanne, also is the early stage of development is the breeding and early stage of cubism. Painters of this period mainly for pure geometry form, give up the light color analysis, the pursuit of object form;
(2) the analytical cubism period of 1909-1912. But they are still only pay attention to the pursuit of forms of decomposition, and does not pay attention to the overall restructuring, and the color is single.
(3) the synthetic cubism period of 1912-1914. From 1912 to 1914 they had entered the "synthetic cubism" period, during this period, the artist started to pay attention to the overall effect of the picture, is no longer just emphasize local decomposition. Colour is gradually enriched, the shape of things again to pay attention to.
Cubist painter's exploration originated from Cezanne's art and creation practice, they put Cezanne "with a cylinder, sphere, round vertebral body to represent natural" this sentence in the presence of his art pursuit of the ideal. Essentially it is the beginning of the 20th century industrial civilization, reflected the social reality in the spirit of the painter machine age.
Picasso once said: "when we make cubism, did not intend to make cubism, but to express our body." Braque acknowledged: "cubism, or rather I cubism, but I have created, use a means, its purpose is to make drawing in line with my talent." They the combination of the two kinds of temperament, and by griess and leger their efforts to put them back together, this creates a dynamic of cubism.
Cubist painting methods, has experienced a brewing process. After the impressionism and symbolism, young artists widespread concern is how to form of innovation, with the rapid changes in the industrial society to show people the inner emotions and psychology. New schools in France, Germany, Italy and Russia. In France, following the beast rise of socialism, the other a group of literary family in the Maltese cross flow "laundry" party. Of Picasso and braque, m. Laurent sen, g. o Neil polly, a. salmon, m. reina, j. griswold, f. leger, etc. Support their art dealer d. - h. kahn Weller, he opened a gallery in Paris in 1907, it is been called community cubism. To participate in the activities of cubism and r. DE los, a. Mr Lyons. In 1910, with j. d glory as the center, establish a new society, cubism because often pitot activity in France, known as pitot group. Dutch painter p. mondrian, Mexico J DE rivera also have contact with pitot group. They give order to analysis the cubism and rules, thereby promoting the cubist toward the direction of more abstract and subjective. Starting in 1912, Picasso, etc. And make a comprehensive test of cubism. Based on the analysis of the cubism and broken and transparent structure, still retains the strong light and a certain space. Painters to different status and different point of view observes object, concentrated performance in a single plane, cause the effect of an overall experience. Synthetic cubism no longer begin from anatomy, the analysis of a certain object, but using a variety of different material combinations to create a new motif, and use the technique of physical collage, artists trying to get close to real life and out of the ordinary.
Although as cubism branch golden club continue to hold exhibition in 1920, 1925 years, but as a cubist art movement in 1914 lost vitality.
Cubism is rich concept art genres. It is mainly the pursuit of a geometric form of beauty, the pursuit of forms of permutation and combination of aesthetic feeling. It dismissed from a performance point of view to observe a thing and the traditional method, the three-dimensional picture down into a flat, twice the space. Light and shade, light, air, the atmosphere of fun to consists of straight line and curve contour, block surface accumulation and staggered taste and emotional appeal. Don't see things from a point of view, the observation and understanding from different point of view, a wide-ranging in images, so as to show the sustainability of the time. In so doing, clearly not rely mainly on visual experience and perceptual knowledge, and relies on rational, ideas and thinking.
The slogan of cubism in the traditional have strong tendency of formalism. But it's exploration of art forms in the modern arts and crafts, decoration art, architectural art, etc. Pay attention to the practical art form to a big boost.
The generation of cubism is also the necessity of developing the art itself. Only in the traditional painting according to see the objective nature of painting, is just a local natural and a one-sided, along with the modern life of modern changes: objective and microcosmic, speed and changeable, machine to restrict, which requires the painting to show the complexity of diversity; The ancient Greek Plato about geometry view of beauty and Cezanne aimed to describe the structure, the immutability of the things point of view and enlightenment of black African sculpture, this leads to the generation of cubist art.
The main features editor
Consistently seek art artists, and Picasso, black to find new painting in the themes and the expression pattern of space. They received Paul Cezanne, George sula, the sculpture, African tribes of art (even rejected the claim black), and the influence of fauvism. Accepted p. cubist painter Cezanne about the creation of the concept of stereo image, and then turned to a kind of pursuit of psychological stereoscopic image. Cubist artists pursue fracture, parsing, recombination of form, form a separate images - pieces of patterns in many combinations for artists to show target. Artists in the perspective of many to describe object, put it in the same picture, to express the most complete image object. Objects of every Angle staggered together caused many parallel and perpendicular to the line Angle, scattered shadows make the cubist picture without the traditional western painting the perspective of three dimensional illusion. Interaction with background with the picture of the theme, let cubist picture to create a two dimensional drawing characteristic.
Cubism differs from that of futurism and other art movements, it doesn't have any platform for expressing their creation of the "declaration", leaving only some scattered remarks. Cubist painter and no theoretical guidance, everyone just according to their own ideas to explore. Picasso said: "I want to paint, according to my imagination, not according to what I see." Braque also said: "the painter did not want to constitute an anecdote, but to make a painting of truth." Cubism in the early works, only gray picture. Due to the use of neutral colors, the whole space not seems special forward or backward. Cubism concept has also undergone a process of development and changes. It in the development of the communist party of China has experienced three periods: the Cezanne period of 1907-1909; The analysis of the 1909-1912 period of cubism. They broke the traditional painting only in accordance with the first a fixed point of view to performance, and then arranged in the same method in the plane of the painting. With the development of exploration, they found the "analysis" of often makes the picture more and loss of form, in an abstract form. Result from 1912 to 1912 they had entered the period of synthetic cubism, the view is: don't go to depict objective object of outward appearance, but the objective object into painting, thus presenting a representational object itself and abstract structure form together.
Although cubist paintings do not seem to "stereo", and is difficult to find out the relationship between the object, but they think it is: with the traditional realism techniques drawn three dimensional "authenticity" is false. To defend their theorists hao gheit said: "the cup is round perspective drawing ellipse is fraud, depending almost little scam." This specious "art", is actually "argue irrationally. Because the visual perspective, is determined by the special structure and eyeball, mankind is based on the specific organs correctly to know the world. Although seems distant mansions than hand book is small, but everyone knows that the distance of mansions far more, even can measure how many times larger. But cubism to create a known object method, generally speaking is the object of the up, down, left, right, front and back and so on various aspects of impression split on a plane. Early "analytical cubism" works like paste paper-cut, "synthetic cubism" late work, like stacked up the broken glass. Early cubism theorists Glenn sith said: "the eye can see objects, just how many phenomenon, how much of an understanding, the material is how many essence." It is the painter personal subjective as the center, to personal understanding of "mind" instead of the laws of the objective world itself. He added: "painting should use their own language to control and guide the audience, rather than to make them understand." So cubism in art performance actually have a clear principle? They want to "control" and "guidance" audience "language", is based on what kind of "grammar"? The founder of the people to ask this school French painter braque. The cubist painter replied: "rather than write some things more clearly, I'd rather make it vague." "It is far from to people feel happy, but to make them feel confused." As cubism prevailed in 1911, a group of new pattern of art youth worship to visit Picasso. A young man carefully ask the 3 d masters, according to the principle of cubism to draw people's feet should be painted round or square, Picasso replied in a tone of authority: "in nature there is no feet!" So fashionable youth party, such as big dream wake up early, with those famous words flew away happily. 
Main influencing editor
The main characteristic of cubism creation, namely, image and divide them, any object in the picture will then be subjective, combined together, in order to the so-called three-dimensional objects of different aspects. Is the second time in the plane and three-dimensional space, even show the invisible to the naked eye structure and time (four dimensions). In contrast to the wild beast pie completely, it represents the tendency of rational it. Think of impressionism, fauvism paintings are in simulated natural, basically is expressive of art. Its significance lies in space processing new ideas, it is in fact dominated the 20th century art in the abstract and the direct source of representational painting genre. Compared with the romantic characteristics of expressionist style, cubism style is classic and formalism.
In western modern art, the Chinese and foreign, cubism is one who has a major impact on sports and school. Its artistic pursuit and Cezanne's artistic value has a direct correlation. Cubist painter himself once said: "whoever understand Cezanne understand cubism". They tried to cut its work of descriptive and expressive, makes every effort to organize a geometric tendency of frame structure. Although his work still has certain representation, but fundamentally, their goal is different from objective reappear. They developed a so-called from Cezanne "at the same time see like" painting language, saw many Angle of different objects, combined with the same image in the picture above. Painters new hit a collage with physical picture graphic arts and language, to further strengthen the texture change of scene, and put forward the natural and painting to people what is real and what is the issue of illusion. Cubism, although is the style of painting, the sculpture and architecture in the 20th century has also had a profound effect.
Although is cubism extreme hatred around the world, after all, it is of epoch-making significance. It become the next few decades many painters inspiration and break up with traditional symbol. The movement of the vibrant, fruits, close cooperation with Picasso and braque is inseparable. The slogan of cubism in the traditional have strong tendency of formalism. Cubist art movement's heyday is only seven years, but extremely widespread impact, cubism in the exploration of art form, in the first decade of the twentieth century has affected the whole European artists, and sparked a series of reform movement of art, such as the futuristic, structuralism and expressionism and so on, especially vividly reflected in the modern arts and crafts, decoration art, architecture art pay attention to the practical art of form fields such as a big boost.
Representative of editing
Picasso was born in the southern port city of malaga in Spain, my father was a teacher of art, served as art director. 14, Picasso was admitted to the father taught at Barcelona art school advanced, 16 years old graduation picture of the visit patients participated in national arts exhibition, a painting is quite realistic modelling level. After earning a Madrid fernando Royal Academy of fine arts. But he is more like the freedom to learn art in art galleries and nutrition.
Picasso, 19, came to Paris, due to the poor always live in the bottom, then he drew some turn friends theme of oil painting, picture filled with a layer of cold blue, this is his "blue period". In April 1904, settled in Paris slums, live a life of freedom and romantic, roams about the entertainer then painted many life painting, color warm pink, this is his "pink". Then due to the influence of Cezanne's art, on the basis of Cezanne's painting in structure, discusses the research work shows geometrical tendency, began to look at the image is decomposed into each plane, and a new combination, in 1907 to create the epoch-making works "avignon girls", from then on, he entered the analytical cubism period research and creation. Soon he was using collage technique, marking the end of his analytical cubism, gradually to "synthetic cubism. 32 after Picasso painting is the main trend of rich modelling method, namely the use of space, colour and line, they are reminiscent of Cezanne.
Picasso ever after another one into a restless exploration period, his works and his life without any unity, continuous and stable. He has no fixed idea, and allows variations in patterns, passionate or mania, amiable, sincere or hypocrisy, let hiring people love and hate, changeable elusive, but he is always loyal to the - free. The world has never been a painter like Picasso with amazing honest heart and innocence of creativity, with complete freedom to remake the world, any free to exercise his power, he don't, don't prejudice, what all don't, what all want to go to create again, he has no rules to follow in art history, he from naturalism to expressionism, from classicism to romanticism, and then return to realism. From concrete to abstract, come and go, he opposed all ties between the universe and all the sacred view, only the absolute freedom for him.
Fernand st. Leger, 1881-1955, France
, "three women";
Al was born in France to ascend. When he was 19 years old came to Paris Versailles, military service, 5 years later settled in a hive, began affected by Cezanne's art, 1910 met Picasso and braque. First war broke out in 1914 and enlisted in the army, he drew some soldiers on the front line and war machines, mechanical aspects of the war machine is particularly strongly affected his feeling. He was retired in the battle of verdun gas.
Leger of strong feelings of the machine into the object as vertebral body, cylinder, polyhedron. He in the contact of external reality, innovation inspiration and expression method of its own. Leger's novels from the objects created by the industrial civilization, he put the man's image is also introduced the mechanical world, the picture has a machine, without the feeling of human nature, some people called his cubism "mechanical" cubism.
In leger works without any traces of modeled, without reference to history and literature, more no myth, tender and romantic, only the strength and will to peace, order and generous, honest and health. Critics say he is "modern primitive man" or "modern classic". Leger when painting, always thinking about noise, speed, tension of life, thinking we were forced to activity in the large buildings, environment and new space. He is not only in color, but also in sharp contrast with his catch of form to suggest a new space.
Georges Braque, 1882-1963, the French, "Mr Stark's house";
Cubist painter, George braque (GeorgesBraque, 1882-1963), in fact is not smaller than Picasso. He with Picasso is the founder of the cubist movement, and the name "cubism" or by his work. In addition, the cubist movement in a number of innovation is also made by him, for example, letters and Numbers to painting, by means of collage, and so on. Black works mostly still life and landscape painting, painting style is concise and simple, precise and unified. "He more than all the other cubist painter cannot reduce concrete and incisive analysis, bring the rare harmonious colour and any of his peers are powerless and elegant and fluent line".
Still life 1929 braqueBorn in Seine black let a painter of the family, his father and grandfather is an amateur painter, which made him I have their interest in painting. In 1893, the family moved to le havre, black he soon in a local art school. In 1902, he entered art school in Paris, guiding by John boehner, and then transferred to institute of bale. In 1904, he set up his own studio. In 1905 after a visit to the autumn salon, he produces strong interest to brutalist painting, then two years later attended the brutalist painting movement. However, his work is in its "peaceful like song" tone, and the strong color, the brushwork is bold and unrestrained and exciting tunnel of brutalist work styles. "His temperament is very smooth, so don't abuse fauvism painters enjoy freedom." In 1907, he met with Picasso, deeply their works are the girl of Vernon, hence two people became friends, common planning the cubist movement.
In 1908, came to Mr Stark black. Is there a late Cezanne had many landscapes. There, braque started by landscape painting to explore the geometric form behind the natural appearance. Its "Mr Stark's house", is a typical works at that time. In this painting, the houses and trees are simplified as geometry. This expression means clearly from Cezanne. The nature of various form Cezanne summed up as cylinder, cone and sphere, black is more further pursue the geometric form of natural object. With his unique methods of compressed image space depth, make the house in the picture looks like a partial pressure of carton, and between plane and three-dimensional effect. Scenery in superposition of before and after the arrangement is not in the picture, but from top to bottom to promote, in this way, make some object has been at the top of the screen. All objects in the picture, whether it is one of the most profound or prospects, are shown in the same definition in the picture. Because of the black painting of that period, the influence of the painting style in obvious fill is, therefore, this stage is called "Cezanne cubist period".